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Behavioral Research

Table of Contents
1 Description and Theoretical Background
2 Use in Health Behavior Theories
3 Measures and Measurement

Most Common Barriers


Measurement and Methodological Issues

6 Summary
7 References
8 Appendix 1
9 Appendix 2
10 Appendix 3
11 Appendix 4
12 Published Examples

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Other Constructs



Dispositional Optimism




Illness Representations

  Implementation Intentions
  Intention, Expectation, and Willingness
  Normative Beliefs
  Optimistic Bias
  Perceived Benefits
  Perceived Control
  Perceived Severity
  Perceived Vulnerability
  Self-Reported Behavior
  Social Influence
  Social Support

Perceived Barriers to Self-Management and Preventive Behaviors
Russell E. Glasgow, Ph.D.

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Common Barriers

There are both similarities and some differences across health behaviors in the types of barriers endorsed most frequently or perceived as most problematic. For example, there is reasonable congruence between the types of barriers endorsed most often for mammography and Pap smear screening: misinformation, embarrassment/discomfort, and inconvenience (Glasgow et al., 2000; Champion et al., 2007). For lifestyle behaviors such as healthy eating, exercising regularly, and smoking cessation, key barriers appear to be social-environmental-peer pressure, negative emotions or mood, stress, and habitual patterns associated with undesired behaviors (Glasgow et al., 2001; McCauley et al., 1998; Velicer et al., 1990). Similarly, commonly endorsed barriers to medication adherence include cost, side effects, and forgetting (Chao et al., 2005).

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Health Behavior Constructs: Theory, Measurement, & Research