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Table of Contents
1 Description and Theoretical Background
2 Use in Health Behavior Theories
3 Measures and Measurement
4 Most Common Barriers
5 Measurement and Methodological Issues
6 Summary
7 References
8

Appendix 1

9 Appendix 2
10 Appendix 3
11 Appendix 4
12 Published Examples

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Other Constructs
 

Barriers

 

Dispositional Optimism

 

Environments

 

Illness Representations

  Implementation Intentions
  Intention, Expectation, and Willingness
  Normative Beliefs
  Optimistic Bias
  Perceived Benefits
  Perceived Control
  Perceived Severity
  Perceived Vulnerability
  Self-Efficacy
  Self-Reported Behavior
  Social Influence
  Social Support
  Stages
  Worry

Perceived Barriers to Self-Management and Preventive Behaviors
Russell E. Glasgow, Ph.D.

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8

Appendix 1. Self-Efficacy/Temptation Scale – Long Form

INSTRUCTIONS: Listed below are situations that lead some people to smoke. We would like to know HOW TEMPTED you may be to smoke in each situation. Please answer the following questions using a 5-point scale with 1 = NOT AT ALL TEMPTED AND 5 = EXTREMELY TEMPTED
How tempted are you to smoke… Not at all tempted Not very tempted Moderately tempted Very tempted Extremely tempted
1. At a bar or cocktail lounge having a drink. 1 2 3 4 5
2. When I am desiring a cigarette. 1 2 3 4 5
3. When things are just not going the way I want and I am frustrated. 1 2 3 4 5
4. With my spouse or close friend who is smoking. 1 2 3 4 5
5. When there are arguments and conflicts with my family. 1 2 3 4 5
6. When I am happy and celebrating. 1 2 3 4 5
7. When I am very angry about something or someone. 1 2 3 4 5
8. When I would experience an emotional crisis, such as an accident or death in the family. 1 2 3 4 5
9. When I see someone smoking and enjoying it. 1 2 3 4 5
10. Over coffee while talking and relaxing. 1 2 3 4 5
11. When I realize that quitting smoking is an extremely difficult task for me. 1 2 3 4 5
12. When I am craving a cigarette. 1 2 3 4 5
13. When I first get up in the morning. 1 2 3 4 5
14. When I feel I need a lift. 1 2 3 4 5
15. When I begin to let down on my concern about my health and am less physically active. 1 2 3 4 5
16. With friends at a party. 1 2 3 4 5
17. When I wake up in the morning and face a tough day. 1 2 3 4 5
18. When I am extremely depressed. 1 2 3 4 5
19. When I am extremely anxious and stressed. 1 2 3 4 5
20. When I realize I haven't smoked for a while. 1 2 3 4 5
SCORING INSTRUCTIONS: The Self-Efficacy/Temptation Scale (Long Form) provides a measure of confidence in resisting smoking in situations represented by the items. An overall score is computed by averaging across the 20 items. In addition, there are three subscales that measure broad aspects of self-efficacy to resist smoking: Positive Affect/Social Situations (items 1, 4, 6, 9, 10, and 16); Negative Affect Situations (items 3, 5, 7, 8, 18, and 19); Habit/Craving Situations (items 11, 13, 14, 15, and 20). Subscale scores are obtained by averaging the response to items within each subscale.
From "Relapse Situations and Self-Efficacy: An Integrative Model" by W.F. Velicer, C.C. DiClemente, J.S. Rossi, and J. O. Prochaska, 1990, Addictive Behaviors, 15:271-283. Reprinted by permission of Elsevier Science. (velicer@uri.edu)
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Health Behavior Constructs: Theory, Measurement, & Research