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Table of Contents
1 Description and Theoretical Background
2 Use in Health Behavior Theories
3 Measures and Measurement
4 Most Common Barriers
5 Measurement and Methodological Issues
6 Summary
7 References
8 Appendix 1
9

Appendix 2

10 Appendix 3
11 Appendix 4
12 Published Examples

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Other Constructs
 

Barriers

 

Dispositional Optimism

 

Environments

 

Illness Representations

  Implementation Intentions
  Intention, Expectation, and Willingness
  Normative Beliefs
  Optimistic Bias
  Perceived Benefits
  Perceived Control
  Perceived Severity
  Perceived Vulnerability
  Self-Efficacy
  Self-Reported Behavior
  Social Influence
  Social Support
  Stages
  Worry

Perceived Barriers to Self-Management and Preventive Behaviors
Russell E. Glasgow, Ph.D.

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9

Appendix 2. Mammography Screening Barriers

1. Compared with your other health problems, having a mammogram is not important

Agree ---------- strongly agree? Or ____ (5)
agree? ____ (4)
Neutral/no opinion -------------------------- ____ (3)
Disagree ------ disagree? Or ____ (2)
strongly disagree? ____ (1)
Donít know -------------------------------- ____ (0)

2. At your age, you do not need to have mammograms.

Agree ---------- strongly agree? Or ____ (5)
agree? ____ (4)
Neutral/no opinion -------------------------- ____ (3)
Disagree ------ disagree? Or ____ (2)
strongly disagree? ____ (1)
Donít know -------------------------------- ____ (0)

3. You do not need a mammogram if you have a breast exam by a doctor.

Agree ---------- strongly agree? Or ____ (5)
agree? ____ (4)
Neutral/no opinion -------------------------- ____ (3)
Disagree ------ disagree? Or ____ (2)
strongly disagree? ____ (1)
Donít know -------------------------------- ____ (0)

4. You are afraid to have a mammogram because it might show a problem.

Agree ---------- strongly agree? Or ____ (5)
agree? ____ (4)
Neutral/no opinion -------------------------- ____ (3)
Disagree ------ disagree? Or ____ (2)
strongly disagree? ____ (1)
Donít know -------------------------------- ____ (0)

5. Having a mammogram is a lot of trouble for you.
(If a woman says, the mammogram is not too much trouble but going to the clinic or waiting is too much trouble, ask: Is what you have to go through to have a mammogram too much trouble?)

Agree ---------- strongly agree? Or ____ (5)
agree? ____ (4)
Neutral/no opinion -------------------------- ____ (3)
Disagree ------ disagree? Or ____ (2)
strongly disagree? ____ (1)
Donít know -------------------------------- ____ (0)

6. Having a mammogram is painful for you.

Agree ---------- strongly agree? Or ____ (5)
agree? ____ (4)
Neutral/no opinion -------------------------- ____ (3)
Disagree ------ disagree? Or ____ (2)
strongly disagree? ____ (1)
Donít know -------------------------------- ____ (0)

7. Having a mammogram is embarrassing for you.

Agree ---------- strongly agree? Or ____ (5)
agree? ____ (4)
Neutral/no opinion -------------------------- ____ (3)
Disagree ------ disagree? Or ____ (2)
strongly disagree? ____ (1)
Donít know -------------------------------- ____ (0)

8. You are worried about having a mammogram because you don't understand what will be done.

Agree ---------- strongly agree? Or ____ (5)
agree? ____ (4)
Neutral/no opinion -------------------------- ____ (3)
Disagree ------ disagree? Or ____ (2)
strongly disagree? ____ (1)
Donít know -------------------------------- ____ (0)

9. You don't have the time to get a mammogram.

Agree ---------- strongly agree? Or ____ (5)
agree? ____ (4)
Neutral/no opinion -------------------------- ____ (3)
Disagree ------ disagree? Or ____ (2)
strongly disagree? ____ (1)
Donít know -------------------------------- ____ (0)

10.Cost would keep you from having a mammogram.
(If woman asks how much a mammogram costs, say, "I'm not sure. It's different in different places. I just need to know if you think the cost of a mammogram would keep you from having one.")

Agree ---------- strongly agree? Or ____ (5)
agree? ____ (4)
Neutral/no opinion -------------------------- ____ (3)
Disagree ------ disagree? Or ____ (2)
strongly disagree? ____ (1)
Donít know -------------------------------- ____ (0)

11. Having a mammogram makes you worry about being exposed to the x-ray.

Agree ---------- strongly agree? Or ____ (5)
agree? ____ (4)
Neutral/no opinion -------------------------- ____ (3)
Disagree ------ disagree? Or ____ (2)
strongly disagree? ____ (1)
Donít know -------------------------------- ____ (0)

12. You have trouble remembering to get a mammogram.

Agree ---------- strongly agree? Or ____ (5)
agree? ____ (4)
Neutral/no opinion -------------------------- ____ (3)
Disagree ------ disagree? Or ____ (2)
strongly disagree? ____ (1)
Donít know -------------------------------- ____ (0)

13. People at the mammography centers are not friendly.

Agree ---------- strongly agree? Or ____ (5)
agree? ____ (4)
Neutral/no opinion -------------------------- ____ (3)
Disagree ------ disagree? Or ____ (2)
strongly disagree? ____ (1)
Donít know -------------------------------- ____ (0)

14. A mammogram can help you find breast cancer when it is just getting started.

Agree ---------- strongly agree? Or ____ (5)
agree? ____ (4)
Neutral/no opinion -------------------------- ____ (3)
Disagree ------ disagree? Or ____ (2)
strongly disagree? ____ (1)
Donít know -------------------------------- ____ (0)

15. Your doctor did not tell you that you should have a mammogram.

Agree ---------- strongly agree? Or ____ (5)
agree? ____ (4)
Neutral/no opinion -------------------------- ____ (3)
Disagree ------ disagree? Or ____ (2)
strongly disagree? ____ (1)
Donít know -------------------------------- ____ (0)

16. Having a mammogram will decrease your chances of dying from breast cancer.

Agree ---------- strongly agree? Or ____ (5)
agree? ____ (4)
Neutral/no opinion -------------------------- ____ (3)
Disagree ------ disagree? Or ____ (2)
strongly disagree? ____ (1)
Donít know -------------------------------- ____ (0)

17. Having a mammogram is the best way to find breast cancer when it is just getting started.

Agree ---------- strongly agree? Or ____ (5)
agree? ____ (4)
Neutral/no opinion -------------------------- ____ (3)
Disagree ------ disagree? Or ____ (2)
strongly disagree? ____ (1)
Donít know -------------------------------- ____ (0)

Champion V, et al. The effect of telephone versus print tailoring for mammography adherence. Patient Education and Counseling, 2007;65:416-423. (vchampion@iupui.edu)

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Health Behavior Constructs: Theory, Measurement, & Research