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Behavioral Research

Table of Contents
1 General Definition and Theoretical Background

Neighborhood Physical Activity Environments


Neighborhood Walkability


Standard Measures


Neighborhood Nutrition Environments

6 Divergent Opinions about the Utility of the Construct of Built Environment
7 Tobacco Control Environments
8 Alcohol Related Environments
9 Measurement Issues for Tobacco and Alcohol Environments
10 References
11 Appendix A
12 Appendix B
13 Published Examples

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Other Constructs



Dispositional Optimism




Illness Representations

  Implementation Intentions
  Intention, Expectation, and Willingness
  Normative Beliefs
  Optimistic Bias
  Perceived Benefits
  Perceived Control
  Perceived Severity
  Perceived Vulnerability
  Self-Reported Behavior
  Social Influence
  Social Support

Environments: Theory, Research and Measures of the Built Environment
Karen Glanz, and Michelle C. Kegler

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Neighborhood Physical Activity Environments

Research to understand the impact of neighborhoods on health has grown significantly over the past decade as public health has more fully embraced a social ecological perspective. Neighborhood effects have been documented for a broad range of health and social outcomes, including birth weight, injury, mental health, and physical activity, among others (Diez-Roux, 2001; Rauh et al., 2001; Cubbin et al., 2000; Leventhal & Brooks-Gunn, 2003; Hoehner et al., 2005). Physical activity occurs in behavior settings (e.g., neighborhoods) (Barker, 1968; Humpel et al., 2002) which are "specific, identifiable units of the environment -…- that because they combine both physical and social elements of the environment into one unit, have very powerful influences on human behavior." (Scott, 2005; p. 297). Research on physical activity and neighborhood environments indicates that people are more physically active in neighborhoods with recreational facilities, a mixture of land uses, connected streets, higher residential density, and enjoyable scenery (Humpel et al., 2002; Saelens et al., 2003).

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Health Behavior Constructs: Theory, Measurement, & Research