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Table of Contents
1 General Definition and Theoretical Background
2 Neighborhood Physical Activity Environments
3 Neighborhood Walkability
4 Standard Measures
5 Neighborhood Nutrition Environments
6 Divergent Opinions about the Utility of the Construct of Built Environment

Tobacco Control Environments

8 Alcohol Related Environments
9 Measurement Issues for Tobacco and Alcohol Environments
10 References
11 Appendix A
12 Appendix B
13 Published Examples

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Other Constructs



Dispositional Optimism




Illness Representations

  Implementation Intentions
  Intention, Expectation, and Willingness
  Normative Beliefs
  Optimistic Bias
  Perceived Benefits
  Perceived Control
  Perceived Severity
  Perceived Vulnerability
  Self-Reported Behavior
  Social Influence
  Social Support

Environments: Theory, Research and Measures of the Built Environment
Karen Glanz, and Michelle C. Kegler

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Tobacco Control Environments

Environmental approaches to tobacco control include altering the physical, social, economic, and communication environments (Brownson et al., 2006). Strategies include clean indoor air policies, restricting youth access to tobacco products, raising the cost of tobacco through excise taxes, mass media campaigns to change social norms, and restricting advertising, among others. Many of these environmental change strategies have been shown to be effective in reducing either secondhand smoke exposure or tobacco use (Hopkins et al., 2001; US, 2006). For example, numerous studies have shown that worksite smoking bans contribute to decreases in daily consumption of cigarettes and decreased smoking prevalence among employees, in addition to reduced secondhand smoke exposure (US DHHS, 2006). Evidence is also accumulating to show that household smoking restrictions may have the same effect in aiding cessation as do worksite smoking bans (Farkas et al., 1999; Gilpin et al., 1999; Okah et al., 2002; Kegler & Malcoe, 2002). For example, a recent longitudinal study found that for smokers who were preparing to quit at baseline, full bans were associated with both a seven-day quit attempt at follow-up and successful cessation (Pizacani et al., 2004). Given the large amount of research conducted on tobacco environments, numerous measures exist. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System assesses worksite smoking policies and household smoking restrictions. Specific measures for assessing household smoking restrictions and workplace policies are available from the Center for Disease Control.

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Health Behavior Constructs: Theory, Measurement, & Research