Examples of Possible Implementation Intentions Geared at Resolving Self-Regulatory Problems in Failing to Get Started with Goal Striving and Getting Derailed.
||Problem Example of Implementation Intention
|Failing to Get Started
|Remembering to act
||[1. Goal is to increase physical activity]
And if it is 5pm on Monday, then I will jog home from work!
|Chasteen, Park, and Schwarz (2001); Gollwitzer and Brandstätter (1997, Study 2); Koestner et al. (2002); Sheeran and Orbell (1999).
||[2. Goal is to obtain health and safety training] As soon as I receive the list of courses, then I will immediately make the phone call to book my place on the first course!
||Brändstatter, Lengfelder, and Gollwitzer (2001, Study 1); Dholakia & Bagozzi (2003); Gollwitzer and Brandstätter (1997, Study 3); Oettingen, Hönig, and Gollwitzer (2000, Study 3); Sheeran and Orbell (2000); Sheeran and Silverman (2003).
||[3. Goal is to eat healthily] And if it is Saturday at 10am, then I will select 5 low-fat dishes from my cook book to make during the week!
||Bayer and Gollwitzer (2007); Orbell and Sheeran (2000); Prestwich, Lawton, and Conner (2003); Sheeran, Webb, and Gollwitzer (2005, Study 1).
|Unwanted attention responses
||[4. Goal is to reduce intake of high-fat snacks] And if I start to think about my favorite snack, then I will immediately ignore that thought!
||Achtziger, Gollwitzer, and Sheeran (2007); Gawrilow and Gollwitzer (in press); Gollwitzer and Schaal (1998); Paul, Gawrilow, Zech, Gollwitzer, Rockstroh, Odenthal, Kratzer, and Wienbruch (2007).
|Falling prey to bad habits
||[5. Goal is to increase physical activity] And if I have walked up one flight of stairs and see the elevator, then I will tell myself ‘I can do it! I can take the stairs all the way up to my office!’
||Cohen, Bayer, Jaudas, and Gollwitzer (2008); Holland, Aarts, and Langendam (2006); Verplanken and Faes (1999)
||[6. Goal is to remain calm in an anxiety-provoking situation] And if my heart starts to race, then I will start my breathing exercise!
||Gollwitzer and Bayer (2000); Gollwitzer, Sheeran, Michalski, and Seifert (2008); Schweiger, Gallo, and Gollwitzer (2007); Sheeran, Aubrey, and Kellett (2007).