Behavioral Research

Table of Contents
1 Description & Theoretical Background
2 Measurement and Methodological Issues
3 Type of Behavior as a Moderator of the Intention - Behavior Relation
4 Other Proximal Antecedents: Implementation Intentions, Behavioral Expectation, and Behavioral Willingness
5 Behavioral Intention vs. Behavioral Expectation vs. Behavioral Willingness
6 References
7

Measures Appendix

8 Published Examples

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Other Constructs
 

Barriers

 

Dispositional Optimism

 

Environments

 

Illness Representations

  Implementation Intentions
  Intention, Expectation, and Willingness
  Normative Beliefs
  Optimistic Bias
  Perceived Benefits
  Perceived Control
  Perceived Severity
  Perceived Vulnerability
  Self-Efficacy
  Self-Reported Behavior
  Social Influence
  Social Support
  Stages

Intention, Expectation, and Willingness
Frederick X. Gibbons

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7

Measures Appendix

Behavioral Intention (BI)
Behavior Item Reference
     
Breast Self-Examination (BSE) I intend to carry out BSE in the next month. (7-pt scale from likely to unlikely) Orbell, Hodgkins, & Sheeran (1997)
     
Exercise I plan to exercise regularly over the next 2 weeks. (7-pt scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree)

I intend to exercise regularly over the next 2 weeks. (7-pt scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree)
Rhodes & Matheson (2005)
     
Exercise I will try to walk on a treadmill for at least 30 minutes each day in the forthcoming month. (7-pt scale from definitely true to definitely false)

I plan to walk on a treadmill for at least 30 minutes each day in the forthcoming month. (7-pt scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree)
Ajzen (2002)

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Behavioral Expectation (BE)
Behavior Item Reference
     
Breast Self-Examination (BSE) How likely or unlikely is it that you will carry out BSE in the next month? (7-pt scale from likely to unlikely) Orbell, Hodgkins, & Sheeran (1997)
     
Exercise I expect to exercise regularly over the next 2 weeks. (7-pt scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree) Rhodes & Matheson (2005)
     
Everyday behaviors All things considered, how likely is it that you actually will perform the given behavior some time next weekend: Eat only nourishing foods…take a walk…smoke some cigarettes…take vitamins (9-pt scales from extremely unlikely to extremely likely) Warshaw & Davis (1985)

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Perceived Behavioral Control (PBC)
Behavior Item Reference
     
Breast Self-Examination (BSE) For me to carry out BSE in the next 30 days is (7-pt scale from easy to difficult)

How confident are you that you can carry out BSE in the next 30 days? (7-pt scale from confident to unconfident)

How much control do you have over whether you carry out BSE in the next 30 days? (7-pt scale from under my control to not under my control)
Orbell, Hodgkins, & Sheeran (1997)
     
Exercise For me to walk on a treadmill for at least 30 minutes each day in the forthcoming month would be (7-pt scale from impossible to possible)

How much control do you believe you have over walking on a treadmill for at least 30 minutes each day in the forthcoming month? (7-pt scale from no control to complete control)

It is mostly up to me whether or not I walk on a treadmill for at least 30 minutes each day in the forthcoming month. (7-pt scale from strongly agree to strongly disagree)
Ajzen (2002)

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Implementation Intention
Behavior Item Reference
     
Breast Self-Examination (BSE) You are more likely to carry out your intention to perform BSE if you make a decision about where and when you will do so. Many women find it most convenient to perform BSE at the start of the morning or last thing at night, in the shower or bath, or while they are getting dressed in their bedroom or bathroom. Others like to do it in bed before they go to sleep or prior to getting up. Decide now where and when you will perform BSE in the next month and make a commitment to do so. Orbell, Hodgkins, & Sheeran (1997)

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Behavioral Willingness (BW)
Behavior Item Reference
     
Instructions From time to time we will ask you to imagine yourself in certain types of situations. We are not suggesting that you would be in these situations. However, we would like you to please think about these situations and how you would respond in them. Then answer each of the questions that follow. We will call these "suppose" questions. Gibbons, Gerrard, Cleveland, Wills, & Brody (2004); Gibbons, Gerrard, Ouellette, & Burzette (1998)
     
Unprotected sex with a casual partner Suppose you were at a party and met a man/woman for the first time. You think that he/she is very attractive. At the end of the evening, you go to his/her apartment with him/her. Neither of you has used nor has available a contraceptive of any kind. In those circumstances, how willing would you be to do each of the following? (7-pt scales from not at all willing to very willing)
Stay at his/her apartment and have sex.
Stay at his/her apartment and have oral sex.
Stay at his/her apartment, but don't have sex.
Get his/her phone number and go home alone.
Gibbons, Gerrard, Blanton, & Russell (1998)
     
Drug use Suppose you were with some of friends at a party. There are some drugs available. How willing would you be to do each of the following? (7-pt scales from not at all willing to very willing)
Use some drugs, but not enough to get high.
Use enough of the drugs to get high.
Leave the party (because of the drugs).
Stay at the party but not use the drugs.
Gibbons, Gerrard, Cleveland, Wills, & Brody (2004)
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