Behavioral Research

Table of Contents
1 Description & Theoretical Background
2 Using Normative Beliefs in Behavior Change Paradigms
3 Measurement and Methodological Issues
4 Factors that Increase the Importance of Normative Beliefs
5 Related Concepts
6

References

7 Measures Appendix: A
8 Measures Appendix: B
9 Published Examples

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Other Constructs
 

Barriers

 

Dispositional Optimism

 

Environments

 

Illness Representations

  Implementation Intentions
  Intention, Expectation, and Willingness
  Normative Beliefs
  Optimistic Bias
  Perceived Benefits
  Perceived Control
  Perceived Severity
  Perceived Vulnerability
  Self-Efficacy
  Self-Reported Behavior
  Social Influence
  Social Support
  Stages
  Worry

Normative Beliefs
David Trafimow

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6

References

Ajzen, I. (1988). Attitudes, personality, and behavior. Chicago: The Dorsey Press.

Allport, F. H. (1933). Institutional behavior. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall

Cialdin, R. B., Kallgren, C. A., & Reno, R. R. (1991). A focus theory of normative conduct: A theoretical refinement and reevaluation of the role of norms in human behavior. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 24, pp. 201-234). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Davidson, A. R., & Jaccard, J. J. (1975). Population psychology: A new look at an old problem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 1073-1082.

Davidson, A. R., & Jaccard, J. J. (1979). Variables that moderate the attitude-behavior relation: Results of a longitudinal survey. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1364-1376.

Fazio, R. H. (1990). Multiple processes by which attitudes guide behavior: The MODE model as an integrative framework. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 23, pp. 75-109). San Diego: Academic Press.

Finlay, K. A., Trafimow, D., & Moroi, E. (1999). The importance of subjective norms on intentions to perform health behaviors. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 29, 2381-2393.

Finlay, K. A., Trafimow, D., & Villarreal, A. (2002). Predicting exercise and health behavioral intentions: Attitudes, subjective norms, and other behavioral determinants. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32, 342-358.

Fishbein, M. (1980). Theory of reasoned action: Some applications and implications. In H. Howe & M. Page (Eds.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, 1979 (pp. 65-116). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

LeBon, G. (1895). The crowd. London: F. Unwin.

Manstead, A. S. R. (2000). The role of moral norm in the attitude-behavior relation. In D. J. Terry & M. A. Hogg (Eds.), Attitudes, behavior, and social context: The role of norms and group membership, (pp. 11-30). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Miniard, P. W., & Cohen, J. B. (1981). An examination of the Fishbein behavioral intentions model's concept and measures. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 17, 309-329.

Prentice, D. A., & Miller, D. T. (1993). Pluralistic ignorance and alcohol use on campus: Some consequences of misperceiving the social norm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 243-256.

Prentice, D. A., & Miller, D. T. (1996). Pluralistic ignorance and the perpetuation of social norms by unwitting actors. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 28, pp. 161-209). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Sheeran, P., Trafimow, D., Finlay, K. A., & Norman, P. (2002). Evidence that the type of person affects the strength of the perceived behavioural control-intention relationship. British Journal of Social Psychology, 41, 253-270.

Terry, D. J., & Hogg, M. A. (2000). (Eds.) Attitudes, Behavior, and Social Context: The Role of Norms and Group Membership. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Trafimow, D. (1994). Predicting intentions to use a condom from perceptions of normative pressure and confidence in those perceptions. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 24, 2151-2163.

Trafimow, D. (1998). Attitudinal and normative processes in health behavior. Psychology and Health, 13, 307-317.

Trafimow, D. (2000). A theory of attitudes, subjective norms, and private versus collective self-concepts. In D. J. Terry and M. A. Hogg (Eds.) Attitudes, Behavior, and Social Context: The Role of Norms and Group Membership, (pp. 47-65). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Trafimow, D. (2001). Condom use among American students: The importance of confidence in normative and attitudinal perceptions. The Journal of Social Psychology, 141, 49-59.

Trafimow, D. (2004). Attitude measurement. In Ronald Lee (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Applied Psychology, Vol 1 (pp. 233-244). Academic Press.

Trafimow, D., & Finlay, K. A. (1996). The importance of subjective norms for a minority of people: Between-subjects and within-subjects analyses. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 820-828.

Trafimow, D., & Fishbein, M. (1994). The moderating effect of behavior type on the subjective norm-behavior relationship. The Journal of Social psychology, 134, 755-763.

Trafimow, D., & Fishbein, M. (1994). The importance of risk in determining the extent to which attitudes affect intentions to wear seat belts. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 24, 1-11.

Trafimow, D., & Fishbein, M. (1995). Do people really distinguish between behavioral and normative beliefs? British Journal of Social Psychology, 34, 257-266.

Trafimow, D., Kiekel, P. A., & Clason, D. (2004). The simultaneous consideration of between-participants and within-participants analyses in research on predictors of behaviors: The issue of dependence. European Journal of Social Psychology, 34, 703-711.

Triandis, H. C. (1980). Values, attitudes, and interpersonal behavior. In H. E. Howe & M. M. Page (Eds.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation 1979 (pp. 195-259). Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.

Ybarra, O., & Trafimow, D. (1998). How priming the private self or collective self affects the relative weights of attitudes or subjective norms. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 362-370.

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