Behavioral Research

Table of Contents
1 Description & Theoretical Background
2 Using Normative Beliefs in Behavior Change Paradigms
3 Measurement and Methodological Issues
4 Factors that Increase the Importance of Normative Beliefs
5 Related Concepts
6 References
7

Measures Appendix: A

8 Measures Appendix: B
9 Published Examples

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Other Constructs
 

Barriers

 

Dispositional Optimism

 

Environments

 

Illness Representations

  Implementation Intentions
  Intention, Expectation, and Willingness
  Normative Beliefs
  Optimistic Bias
  Perceived Benefits
  Perceived Control
  Perceived Severity
  Perceived Vulnerability
  Self-Efficacy
  Self-Reported Behavior
  Social Influence
  Social Support
  Stages
  Worry

Normative Beliefs
David Trafimow

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7

Measures Appendix: A

Appendix A gives examples of how to measure subjective norms, normative beliefs, and motivations to comply for the behavior of "attend a cervical cancer screening at 2:00 next Tuesday." In the examples below, I pretend that an elicitation study has been performed and that the important others in the population of interest have been determined to be doctors, spouses, fathers, mothers, and best friends. Appendix B explains how to use data obtained from these items.

Measurement of Subjective Norms

Make a check mark (X) on the appropriate blank for each item below.

Most people who are important to me think I

should_________:_________:_________:_________:_________:_________:_________should not
               extremely        quite            slightly         neutral          slightly         quite            extremely

attend a cervical cancer screening next Tuesday at 2:00 at the local health center.

Most people who are important to me think it

would_________:_________:_________:_________:_________:_________:_________would not
             extremely        quite            slightly         neutral          slightly         quite            extremely

be a good idea for me to attend a cervical cancer screening next Tuesday at 2:00 at the local health center.

Most people who are important to me

want me_________:_________:_________:_________:_________:_________:_________do not want
                 extremely        quite            slightly         neutral          slightly         quite            extremely

me to attend a cervical cancer screening next Tuesday at 2:00 at the local health center.

Measurement of Normative Beliefs

My doctor thinks I

should_________:_________:_________:_________:_________:_________:_________should not
               extremely        quite            slightly         neutral          slightly         quite            extremely

attend a cervical cancer screening next Tuesday at 2:00 at the local health center.

My spouse thinks I

should_________:_________:_________:_________:_________:_________:_________should not
               extremely        quite            slightly         neutral          slightly         quite            extremely

attend a cervical cancer screening next Tuesday at 2:00 at the local health center.

My father thinks I

should_________:_________:_________:_________:_________:_________:_________should not
               extremely        quite            slightly         neutral          slightly         quite            extremely

attend a cervical cancer screening next Tuesday at 2:00 at the local health center.

My mother thinks I

should_________:_________:_________:_________:_________:_________:_________should not
               extremely        quite            slightly         neutral          slightly         quite            extremely

attend a cervical cancer screening next Tuesday at 2:00 at the local health center.

My best friend thinks I

should_________:_________:_________:_________:_________:_________:_________should not
               extremely        quite            slightly         neutral          slightly         quite            extremely

attend a cervical cancer screening next Tuesday at 2:00 at the local health center.

Measurement of Motivations to Comply

Make a check mark (X) on appropriate blanks below to indicate how much you want to do what each of the people below want you to do. The scales range from 0 (not at all) to 6 (extremely).

In general, I want to do what my doctor thinks I should do:

Not at all_________:_________:_________:_________:_________:_________:_________Extremely
                         0                     1                    2                    3                   4                    5                   6

In general, I want to do what my spouse thinks I should do:

Not at all_________:_________:_________:_________:_________:_________:_________Extremely
                         0                     1                    2                    3                   4                    5                   6

In general, I want to do what my father thinks I should do:

Not at all_________:_________:_________:_________:_________:_________:_________Extremely
                         0                     1                    2                    3                   4                    5                   6

In general, I want to do what my mother thinks I should do:

Not at all_________:_________:_________:_________:_________:_________:_________Extremely
                         0                     1                    2                    3                   4                    5                   6

In general, I want to do what my best friend thinks I should do:

Not at all_________:_________:_________:_________:_________:_________:_________Extremely
                         0                     1                    2                    3                   4                    5                   6

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