Behavioral Research

Table of Contents
1 General Description & Theoretical Background
2 Definitions of Perceived Vulnerability in Health Behavior Theories
3 Measurement and Methodological Issues
4 Similar Constructs
5

References

6 Published Examples

Download Full Text (PDF)

Other Constructs
 

Barriers

 

Dispositional Optimism

 

Environments

 

Illness Representations

  Implementation Intentions
  Intention, Expectation, and Willingness
  Normative Beliefs
  Optimistic Bias
  Perceived Benefits
  Perceived Control
  Perceived Severity
  Perceived Vulnerability
  Self-Efficacy
  Self-Reported Behavior
  Social Influence
  Social Support
  Stages
  Worry

Perceived Vulnerability
Meg Gerrard and Amy E. Houlihan

<< Previous
Next >>

5 References

Becker, M.H. (ed). (1974) The health belief model and personal health behavior. Health Education Monographs , 2, 324-508.  

Bice, T.W., & White, K.L. (1969). Factors related to the use of health services: an international comparative study. Medical Care , 8, 124-133.  

Covey, J.A., & Davies, A.D.M. (2004). Are people unrealistically optimistic? It depends how you ask them. British Journal of Health Psychology , 9, 39-49.

Gerrard, M., Gibbons, F.X., Benthin A., & Hessling, R.M. (1996). A longitudinal study of the reciprocal nature of risk behaviors and cognitions in adolescents: What you do shapes what you think and vice versa. Health Psychology, 15 , 344-354.

Gerrard, M., Gibbons F.X., & Bushman, B.J. (1996). The relation between perceived vulnerability to HIV and precautionary sexual behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 119 , 390-409.

Gerrard, M., Gibbons, F.X., Reis-Bergan, M., Trudeau, L., Vande Lune, L., & Buunk, B.P. (2002). Inhibitory effects of drinker and non-drinker prototypes on adolescent alcohol consumption. Health Psychology, 21 , 601-609.

Gerrard, M., & Luus, C.A.E. (1995). Judgments of vulnerability to pregnancy: The role of risk factors and individual differences. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21 , 160-171.

Gibbons, F.X., Lane, D., Gerrard, M., Pomery, E., & Lautrup, C. (2002). Drinking and driving: A prospective assessment of the relation between risk cognitions and risk behavior. Risk, Decision, and Policy, 7, 267-283.

Gibbons, F.X., & Gerrard, M. (1995). Predicting young adults' health risk behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 69, 505-517.  

Gibbons, F.X., Gerrard, M., & Lane, D.J. (2003). A social reaction model of adolescent health risk. In J.M. Suls & K. Wallston (Eds.), Social psychological foundations of health and illness . Oxford , U.K: Blackwell.

Haefner, D.P., & Kirscht, J.P. (1970). Motivational and behavioral effects of modifying health beliefs. Public Health Reports , 85, 478-84.

Halpern-Felsher, B. L., Millstein, S. G., Ellen, J. M., Adler, N. E., Tschann, J. M., & Biehl, M. (2001). The role of behavioral experience in judging risks. Health Psychol., 20, 120-126.

Hochbaum, G.M. (1958). Public participation in medical screening programs: a socio-psychological study. Public Health Service Publication No. 572. Washington , D.C. : U.S. Government Printing Office.

Joseph, J.G., Montgomery, S.A., Emmons, C.A., Kirscht, J.P. et al. (1987). Perceived risk of AIDS: Assessing the behavioral and psychosocial consequences in a cohort of gay men. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 17, 231-250.

Kegeles, S.S. (1963). Why people seek dental care: a test of a conceptual frame-work. Journal of Health and Human Behavior , 4, 166.  

Klein, W.M. (1996). Maintaining self-serving social comparisons: attenuating the perceived significance of risk increasing behaviors. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology , 15, 120-142.

Klein, W.M., & Weinstein , N.D. (1997). Social comparison and unrealistic optimism about personal risk. In B. P. Buunk & F. X. Gibbons (Eds.), Health, coping, and well-being: perspectives from social comparison theory . Hills-dale , NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum.

Loewenstein, G.F., Weber, E.U., Hsee, C.K., & Welch, N. (2001). Risk as feelings. Psychological Bulletin , 127, 267-286.

Maiman, L.A. , & Becker, M.H. (1974). The health belief model: origins and correlates in psychological theory. Health Education Monographs , 2, 336-353.

Osborne, R.H., Elsworth, G.R., Kissane, D.W., Burke, S.A., & Hopper, J.L. (1999). The mental adjustment to cancer (MAC) scale: replication and refinement in 632 breast cancer patients. Psychological Medicine , 29, 1335-1345.

Perloff, L.S. & Fetzer, B.K. (1986). Self-other judgments and perceived vulnerability to victimization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50(3):502-510.

Rogers, R.W. (1983). Cognitive and physiological processes in fear appeals and attitude change: a revised theory of protection motivation. In J. T. Cacioppo and R. E. Petty (Eds.), Social Psychophysiology . New York : Guilford Press, 153-176.

Ronis, D.L. (1992). Conditional health threats: health beliefs, decisions, and behaviors among adults. Health Psychol., 11, 127-134.

Rosenstock, I.M. (1966). Why people use health services. Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly , 44, 94-127.

Rosenstock, I.M. (1974). Historical origins of the health belief model. Health Education Monographs , 2, 328-335.

Slovic, P., Finucane, M., Peters, E., & McGregor, D.G. (2003). The affect heuristic. In T. Gilovich, D. Griffin, & D. Kahneman (Eds.), Heuristics and biases: the psychology of intuitive judgment . New York : Cambridge University Press.

van der Pligt, J. (1998). Perceived risk and vulnerability as predictors of precautionary behaviour. British Journal of Health Psychology , 3, 1-14.

Weinstein, N.D. (1982). Unrealistic optimism about susceptibility to health problems. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 5, 441-460.

Weinstein , N.D. (1988). The precaution adoption process. Health Psychology , 7, 355-386.

Weinstein, N.D., Kwitel, A., McCaul, K., Magnan, R., Gerrard, M., & Gibbons, F.X. (in press). Risk perceptions: Assessment and relationship to influenza vaccination. Health Psychology.

Weinstein , N.D. , Lyon , J.E., Sandman, P.M., & Cuite, C.L. (1998). Experimental evidence for stages of health behavior change: The precaution adoption process model applied to home radon testing. Health Psychology , 17, 445-453.

Weinstein , N.D. , & Nicolich, M. (1993). Correct and incorrect interpretations of correlations between risk perceptions and risk behaviors. Health Psychology, 12 , 235-245.

Windschitl, P.D. (2003). Measuring and conceptualizing perceptions of vulnerability/likelihood. Paper presented at the Conceptualizing and Measuring Risk Perceptions Workshop, February 13-14, 2003 ; Washington , D.C.

<< Previous
Next >>

Search | Help | Contact Us | Accessibility | Privacy Policy

DCCPSNational Cancer Institute Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health USA.gov

Health Behavior Constructs: Theory, Measurement, & Research  You can Quit smoking Now! smokefree.gov