Behavioral Research

Table of Contents
1 Self-Efficacy and Health Behavior Theories
2 Measures and Measurements
3 Similar Constructs



Measures Appendix

6 Published Examples

Download Full Text (PDF)

Other Constructs



Dispositional Optimism




Illness Representations

  Implementation Intentions
  Intention, Expectation, and Willingness
  Normative Beliefs
  Optimistic Bias
  Perceived Benefits
  Perceived Control
  Perceived Severity
  Perceived Vulnerability
  Self-Reported Behavior
  Social Influence
  Social Support

Ralf Schwarzer and Aleksandra Luszczynska

<< Previous



Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179-211.

Anderson, E. S., Winett, R. A., & Wojcik, J. R. (2000). Social-cognitive determinants of nutrition behavior among supermarket food shoppers: A structural equation analysis. Health Psychology, 19(5), 479-486.

Annis, H. M. (1984). Situational Confidence Questionnaire, short form. Toronto: Addiction Research Foundation.

Annis, H. M. (1987). Situational Confidence Questionnaire, short form. Toronto: Addiction Research Foundation.

Annis, H. M., & Davis, C. S. (1988). Assessment of expectancies. In D. M. Donovan & G. A. Marlatt (Eds.), Assessment of addictive behaviors (pp. 84-111). New York: Guilford.

Bagozzi, R. P., & Edwards, E. A. (1998). Goal setting and goal pursuit in the regulation of body weight. Psychology and Health, 13, 593-621.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.

Barling, J., & Abel, M. (1983). Self-efficacy and tennis performance. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 7, 265-272.

Basen-Engquist, K. (1992). Psychosocial predictors of "safer-sex" behaviors in young adults, Aids Education and Prevention, 4, 120-134.

Bond, M. J. (2002). The roles of self-efficacy, outcome expectancies and social support in the self-care behaviors of diabetics. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 7, 127-141.

Brafford, L. J., & Beck, K. H. (1991). Development and validation of a condom self-efficacy scale for college students. Journal of American College Health, 39, 219-225.

Brien, T. M., & Thombs, D. L. (1994). Dimensions of self-efficacy among three distinct groups of condom users. Journal of American College Health, 42, 132-149.

Brug, J., Hospers, H. J., & Kok, G. (1997). Differences in psychosocial factors and fat consumption between stages of change for fat reduction. Psychology and Health, 12, 719-727.

Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (1998). On the self-regulation of behavior. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Catz, S. L., Kelly, J. A., Bogart, L. M., Benotsch, E. G., & McAuliffe, T. L. (2000). Patterns, correlates, and barriers to medication adherence among persons prescribed new treatments for HIV disease. Health Psychology, 19, 124-133.

Chang, M., Nitzke, S., & Brown, R. L. (2003). Development and validation of a self-efficacy measure for fat intake behaviors of low-income women. Journal of Nutrition Education & Behavior, 35, 302-307.

Christiansen, M., Vik, P. W., & Jarchow, A. (2002). College student heavy drinking in social contexts versus alone. Addictive Behaviors, 27, 393-404.

Colletti, G., Supnick, J. A., & Payne, T. J. (1985). The Smoking Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (SSEQ): Preliminary scale development and validation. Behavioral Assessment, 7(3), 249-260.

Conn, V. S. (1997). Older women: Social cognitive correlates of health behavior. Women and Health, 26, 71-85.

Cormier, L., Kwan, L., Reid, K., & Litwin, M. (2002). Knowledge and beliefs among brothers and sons of men with prostate cancer. Urology, 59, 895-900.

Desharnais, R., Bouillon, J., & Godin, G. (1986). Self-efficacy and outcome expectations as determinants of exercise adherence. Psychological Reports, 59, 1155-1159.

DeVellis, B. M., & DeVellis, R. F. (2000). Self-efficacy and health. In: A. Baum, T. A. Revenson, & J. E. Singer (Eds.), Handbook of Health Psychology (pp. 235-247). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

DiClemente, C. C., Carbonari, J. P., & Montgomery, Rosario P. G. (1994). The Alcohol Abstinence Self-Efficacy scale. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 55, 141-148.

Dijkstra, A., Bakker, M. & De Vries, H. (1997). Subtypes within a sample of precontemplating smokers: A preliminary extension of the stages of change. Addictive Behaviors, 22, 327-337.

Dijkstra, A., & De Vries, H. (2000). Self-efficacy expectations with regard to different tasks in smoking cessation. Psychology & Health, 15(4), 501-511.

Dzewaltowski, D. A. (1989). Toward a model of exercise motivation. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11, 251-269.

Dzewaltowski, D. A., Noble, J. M., & Shaw, J. M. (1990). Physical activity participation: Social cognitive theory versus the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 12, 388-405.

Feltz, D. L., & Riessinger, C. A. (1990). Effects of in vivo emotive imagery and performance feedback on self-efficacy and muscular endurance. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 12, 132-143.

Fuhrmann, A., & Kuhl, J. (1998). Maintaining a healthy diet: Effects of personality and self-reward versus self-punishment on commitment to and enactment of self-chosen and assigned goals. Psychology and Health, 13, 651-686.

Gbenga, O., Mancuso, C. A., Allegrante, J. P., & Charlson, M. E. (2003). Development and evaluation of a medication adherence self-efficacy scale in hypertensive African-American patients. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 56, 520-524.

Giles, M., Liddell, C., & Bydawell, M. (2005). Condom use in African adolescents: The role of individual and group factors. AIDS Care, 17, 729-739.

Gollwitzer, P. M., & Oettingen, G. (1998). The emergence and implementation of health goals. Psychology and Health, 13, 687-715.

Grossman, H. Y., Brink, S., & Hauser, S. T. (1987). Self-efficacy in adolescent girls and boys with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care, 10, 324-329.

Gwaltney, C. J., Shiffman, S., & Normal, G. J. (2001). Does smoking abstinence self-efficacy vary across situations? Identifying context-specificity within the Relapse Situation Efficacy Questionnaire. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 69, 516-527.

Gwaltney, C. J., Shiffman, S., Paty, J. A., Liu, K. S., Kassel, J. D., Gnys, M., & Hickcox, M. (2002). Using self-efficacy judgments to predict characteristics of lapses to smoking, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 1140-1149.

Kaljee, L. M., Genberg, B., & Riel, R. (2005). Effectiveness of a theory-based risk reduction HIV prevention program for rural Vietnamese adolescents. AIDS Education & Prevention, 17, 185-199.

Kasen, S., Vaughn, R. D., & Walter, H. J. (1992). Self-efficacy for AIDS preventive behaviors among tenth-grade students. Health Education Quarterly, 19, 187-202.

Kobau, R., & DiIorio, C. (2003). Epilepsy self-management: A comparison of self-efficacy and outcome expectancy for medication adherence and lifestyle behaviors among people with epilepsy. Epilepsy & Behavior, 4, 217-225.

Kremers, S. P., Mesters, I., Pladdet, I. E., van den Borne, B., & Stockbrügger, R. W. (2000). Participation in a sigmoidoscopic colorectal cancer screening program: A pilot study. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, 9, 1127-1130.

Levinson, R. A. (1982). Teenage women and contraceptive behavior: Focus on self-efficacy in sexual and contraceptive situations. Unpublished PhD thesis. Stanford, CA: Stanford University.

Long, B. C., & Haney, C. J. (1988). Coping strategies for working women: Aerobic exercise and relaxation interventions. Behavior Therapy, 19, 75-83.

Lorig, K., Stewart, A., Ritter, P., González, V., Laurent, D., & Lynch, J. (1996). Outcome measures for health education and other health care interventions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Luszczynska, A., Gutiérrez-Doña, B., & Schwarzer, R. (2005). General self-efficacy in various domains of human functioning: Evidence from five countries. International Journal of Psychology, 40, 80-89.

Luszczynska, A., & Schwarzer, R. (2003). Planning and self-efficacy in the adoption and maintenance of breast self-examination: A longitudinal study on self-regulatory cognitions. Psychology & Health, 18, 93-108.

Luszczynska, A., & Schwarzer, R. (2005). Multidimensional health locus of control: Comments on the construct and its measurement. Journal of Health Psychology, 10, 633-642.

Marlatt, G. A., Baer, J. S., & Quigley, L. A. (1995). Self-efficacy and addictive behavior. In A. Bandura (Ed), Self-efficacy in changing societies (pp. 289-315). New York: Cambridge University Press.

McAuley, E. (1992). The role of efficacy cognitions in the prediction of exercise behavior in middle-aged adults. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 15, 65-88.

McAuley, E. (1993). Self-efficacy and the maintenance of exercise participation in older adults. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 16, 103-113.

Meyerowitz, B. E., & Chaiken, S. (1987). The effect of message framing on breast self-examination attitudes, intentions, and behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 500-510.

Mohr, D. C., Boudewyn, A. C., Likosky, W., Levine, E., & Goodkin, D. E. (2001). Injectable medication for the treatment of multiple sclerosis: The influence of self-efficacy expectations and injection anxiety on adherence and ability to self-inject. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 23, 125-134.

Molassiotis, A., Nahas-Lopez, V., Chung, W. Y., Lam, S. W., Li, C. K., & Lau, T. F. (2002). Factors associated with adherence to antiretroviral medication in HIV-infected patients. International Journal of STD & AIDS, 13, 301-310.

Motl, R. W., Dishman, R. K., Saundres, R. P., Dowda, M., Felton, G., Ward, D. S., & Pate, R. R. (2002). Examining social-cognitive determinants of intention and physical activity among Black and White adolescent girls using structural equation modelling. Health Psychology, 21, 459-467.

Murphy, D. A., Greenwell, L., & Hoffman, D. (2002). Factors associated with antiretroviral adherence among HIV-infected women with children. Women & Health, 36, 97-111.

Ockene, J. K., Emmons, K. M., Mermelstein, R. J., Perkins, K. A., Bonollo, D. S., Voorhees, C. C., & Hollis, J. F. (2000). Relapse and maintenance issues for smoking cessation. Health Psychology, 19, 17-31.

Pinto, B. M., Friedman, R., Marcus, B. H., Kelly, H., Tennstedt, S., & Gillman, M. W. (2002). Effects of computer-based, telephone-counseling system on physical activity. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 23, 113-120.

Prochaska, J. O., Norcross, J. C., Fowler, J., Follick, M. J., & Abrams, D. B. (1992). Attendance and outcome in a worksite weight control program: Processes and stages of change as process and predictor variables. Addictive Behaviors, 17, 35-45.

Resnicow, K., Wallace, D. S., Jackson, A., Digirolamo, A., Odom, E., Wang, T., Dudley, W. M., Davis, M., Mitchell, D., & Baranowski, T. (2000). Dietary change through African American churches: Baseline results and program description of the eat for life trial. Journal of Cancer Education, 15, 156-163.

Rotter, J. B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs, 80, No. 609.

Rovniak, L. S., Anderson, E. S., Winett, R. A., & Stephens, R. S. (2002). Social cognitive determinants of physical activity in young adults: A prospective structural equation analysis. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 24, 149-156.

Rychtarik, R. G., Prue, D. M., Rapp, S. R., & King, A. C. (1992). Self-efficacy, aftercare and relapse in a treatment program from alcoholics. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 53, 435-440.

Sallis, J. F., Haskell, W. L., Fortmann, S. P., Vranizan, K. M., Taylor, C. B., & Solomon, D. S. (1986). Predictors of adoption and maintenance of physical activity in a community sample. Preventive Medicine, 15, 331-341.

Sallis, J. F., Hovell, M. F., Hofstetter, C. R., & Barrington, E. (1992). Explanation of vigorous physical activity during two years using social learning variables. Social Science and Medicine, 34, 25-32.

Savoca, M., & Miller, C. (2001). Food selection and eating patterns: Themes found among people with type-2 diabetes mellitus. Journal of Nutrition Education, 33, 224-233.

Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (1985). Optimism, coping, and health: Assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies. Health Psychology, 4, 219-247.

Schnoll, R. A., Miller, S. M., Unger, M., McAleer, C., Halbherr, T., & Bradley, P. (2002). Characteristics of female smokers attending a lung cancer screening program: a pilot study with implications for program development. Lung Cancer, 37, 257-265.

Schnoll, R., & Zimmerman, B. J. (2001). Self-regulation training enhances dietary self-efficacy and dietary fiber consumption. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 101, 1006-1011.

Scholz, U., Gutiérrez-Doña, B., Sud, S., & Schwarzer, R. (2002). Is general self-efficacy a universal construct? Psychometric findings from 25 countries. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 18, 242-251.

Schwarzer, R. (1992). Self-efficacy in the adoption and maintenance of health behaviors: Theoretical approaches and a new model. In R. Schwarzer (Ed.), Self-efficacy: Thought control of action (pp. 217-243). Washington, DC: Hemisphere.

Schwarzer, R. (1994). Optimism, vulnerability, and self-beliefs as health-related cognitions: A systematic overview. Psychology & Health, 9, 161-180.

Schwarzer, R. (2001). Social-cognitive factors in changing health-related behavior. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10, 47-51.

Schwarzer, R., & Jerusalem, M. (1995). Generalized Self-Efficacy scale. In J. Weinman, S. Wright, & M. Johnston (Eds.), Measures in Health Psychology: A user's portfolio. Causal and control beliefs (pp. 35-37). Windsor, UK: NFER-NELSON.

Schwarzer, R., & Renner, B. (2000). Social-cognitive predictors of health behavior: Action self-efficacy and coping self-efficacy. Health Psychology, 19, 487-495.

Seydel, E., Taal, E., & Wiegman, O. (1990). Risk-appraisal, outcome and self-efficacy expectancies: Cognitive factors in preventive behavior related to cancer. Psychology and Health, 4, 99-109

Shaw, J. M., Dzewaltowski, D. A., & McElroy, M. (1992). Self-efficacy and causal attributions as mediators of perceptions of psychological momentum. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 14, 134-147.

Shiffman, S., Balabanis, M. H., Paty, J. A., Engberg, J., Gwaltney, C. J., Liu, K. S., Gnys, M., Hickcox, M., & Paton, S. M. (2000). Dynamic effects of self-efficacy on smoking lapse and relapse. Health Psychology, 19, 315-323.

Sitharthan, T., & Kavanagh, D. J. (1990). Role of self-efficacy in predicting outcomes from a programme for controlled drinking. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 27, 87-94.

Sitharthan, T., Soames Job, R. F., Kavanagh, D. J., Sitharthan, G., & Hough, M. (2003). Development of a controlled drinking self-efficacy scale and appraising its relation to alcohol dependence. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 59, 351-362.

Snyder, C. R. (1994). The psychology of hope: You can get there from here. New York: Free Press.

Snyder, C. R. (2002). Hope theory: Rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13, 249-275.

Snyder, C. R., Harris, C., Anderson, J. R., Holleran, S. A., Irving, L. M., Sigmon, S. T., Yoshinobu, L., Gibb, J., Langelle, C., & Harney, P. (1991). The will and the ways: Development and validation of an individual-differences measure of hope. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 570-585.

Sutton, S. (2005). Stage theories of health behavior. In M. Conner & P. Norman (Eds.), Predicting health behaviors. (2nd ed., pp. 223-275). Maidenhead, England: Open University Press.

Wallston, K. A., Wallston, B. S., & DeVellis, R. F. (1978). Development of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) scales. Health Education Monographs, 6, 160-170.

Wang, R.-H., Wang, H.-H., & Hsu, M.-T. (2003). Factors associated with adolescent pregnancy - a sample of Taiwanese female adolescents. Public Health Nursing, 20, 33-41.

Weinberg, R. S., Gould, D., & Jackson, A. (1979). Expectations and performance: An empirical test of Bandura's self-efficacy theory. Journal of Sport Psychology, 1, 320-331.

Weinberg, R. S., Gould, D., Yukelson, D., & Jackson, A. (1981). The effect of preexisting and manipulated self-efficacy on competitive muscular endurance task. Journal of Sport Psychology, 4, 345-354.

Weinberg, R., Grove, R., & Jackson, A. (1992). Strategies for building self-efficacy in tennis players: A comparative analysis of Australian and American coaches. Sport Psychologist, 6, 3-13.

Weinberg, R. S., Yukelson, D., & Jackson, A. (1980). Effects of public and private efficacy expectations on competitive performance. Journal of Sport Psychology, 2, 340-349.

Weiss, M. R., Wiese, D. M., & Klint, K. A. (1989). Head over heels with success: The relationship between self-efficacy and performance in competitive youth gymnastics. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11, 444-451.

West, R. (2005). What does it take for a theory to be abandoned? The transtheoretical model of behaviour change as a test case. Addiction, 100, 1048-1050.

Wulfert, E., & Wan C. K. (1993). Condom use: A self-efficacy model. Health Psychology, 12, 346-353.

Wurtele, S. K., & Maddux, J. E. (1987). Relative contributions of protection motivation theory components in predicting exercise intentions and behavior. Health Psychology, 6, 453-466.

Young, R. M., & Oei, T. P. S. (1996). Drinking expectancy profile: Test manual. Behavior Research and Therapy Centre, University of Queensland, Australia.

Young, R. M., Oei, T. P. S., & Crook, G. M. (1991). Development of a drinking self-efficacy questionnaire. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 13, 1-15.

<< Previous

Search | Help | Contact Us | Accessibility | Privacy Policy

DCCPSNational Cancer Institute Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health

Health Behavior Constructs: Theory, Measurement, & Research  You can Quit smoking Now!