Behavioral Research

Table of Contents
1 Self-Efficacy and Health Behavior Theories
2 Measures and Measurements
3 Similar Constructs
4 References
5

Measures Appendix

6 Published Examples

Download Full Text (PDF)

Other Constructs
 

Barriers

 

Dispositional Optimism

 

Environments

 

Illness Representations

  Implementation Intentions
  Intention, Expectation, and Willingness
  Normative Beliefs
  Optimistic Bias
  Perceived Benefits
  Perceived Control
  Perceived Severity
  Perceived Vulnerability
  Self-Efficacy
  Self-Reported Behavior
  Social Influence
  Social Support
  Stages
  Worry

Self-Efficacy
Ralf Schwarzer and Aleksandra Luszczynska

<< Previous
Next >>

5

Measures Appendix

Type of self-efficacy scale Example of items from the scale Response Format Source
General Self-Efficacy (GSE) scale I can always manage to solve difficult problems if I try hard enough.

If someone opposes me, I can find the means and ways to get what I want.

It is easy for me to stick to my aims and accomplish my goals.

I am confident that I could deal efficiently with unexpected events.

Thanks to my resourcefulness, I know how to handle unforeseen situations.

I can solve most problems if I invest the necessary effort.

I can remain calm when facing difficulties because I can rely on my coping abilities.

When I am confronted with a problem, I can usually find several solutions.

If I am in trouble, I can usually think of a solution.

I can usually handle whatever comes my way.
1 - definitely not
4 - exactly true
Schwarzer & Jerusalem, 1995
The Nutrition Self-Efficacy Scale How certain are you that you could overcome the following barriers?

I can manage to stick to healthful foods, ...

1) ...even if I need a long time to develop the necessary routines.

2) ...even if I have to try several times until it works.

3) ...even if I have to rethink my entire way of nutrition.

4) ...even if I do not receive a great deal of support from others when making my first attempts.

5) ...even if I have to make a detailed plan.
1 - definitely not
4 - exactly true
Schwarzer & Renner, 2000
The Nutrition Self-Efficacy Scale How certain are you that you can...

1) I can bring a slice of bread with fiber to work or school for a snack.

2) I can get at least 4 servings from every pound of ground beef I buy.
1 (very sure I cannot) -
10 (very sure I can)
Anderson, Winett, & Wojcik, 2000
Exercise self-efficacy scale How certain are you that you could overcome the following barriers?

I can manage to carry out my exercise intentions, ...

1) ... even when I have worries and problems.

2) ... even if I feel depressed.

3) ... even when I feel tense.

4) ... even when I am tired.

5) ... even when I am busy.
1 - definitely not
4 - exactly true
Schwarzer & Renner, 2000
Exercise regularly scale We would like to know how confident you are in doing certain activities. For each of the following questions, please choose the number that corresponds to your confidence that you can do the tasks regularly at the present time.

1) How confident are you that you can do gentle exercises for muscle strength and flexibility three to four times per week (range of motion, using weights, etc.)?

2) How confident are you that you can do aerobic exercise such as walking, swimming, or bicycling three to four times each week?

3) How confident are you that you can exercise without making symptoms worse?
1 - not at all confident;
10 - totally confident
Lorig et al., 1996
Situational Confidence Questionnaire - alcohol abstinence self-efficacy I would be able to resist the urge to drink heavily ...

1) If I felt that I had let myself down.

2) If I had trouble sleeping.

3) If I had an argument with a friend.

4) If I were out with friends and they stopped by a bar for a quick drink.

5) If I remembered how good it tasted.

6) If I wanted to prove to myself that I could take a few drinks without becoming a drunk.
6-point scale, response options range from 0% (not at all confident) to 100% (very confident), with mid-range options including 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% confidence levels Annis, 1984, 1987
The Alcohol Resistance Self-Efficacy Scale I am certain that I can control myself to ...

1) ... reduce my alcohol consumption.

2) ... not drink any alcohol at all.

3) ... drink only on special occasions.
1 - definitely not
4 - exactly true
Schwarzer & Renner, 2000
Smoking cessation self-efficacy Imagine you are engaging in a quit attempt. Are you able to refrain from smoking...

1) …when you are angry?

2) … when you are going out with friends?

Imagine you are engaging in a quit attempt. Are you able to divert yourself when you feel like smoking?

Are you able to maintain your quit attempt when you have been refraining from smoking for one month, but you light a cigarette?

Are you able to smoke fewer cigarettes a day?
7-point scale and could be scored from "not at all sure I am able to" (-3) to "very sure I am able to" (+3) Dijkstra & De Vries, 2000
Adherence (self-injection) self-efficacy How difficult do you expect it will be to give yourself the injection? 1 - I will not have any problems injecting myself;
6 - I will not be able to tolerate it at all.
Mohr et al., 2001
Condom-Use Self-Efficacy Scale 1) I feel confident in my ability to put a condom on myself or my partner.

2) I feel confident that I would remember to use a condom even after I have been drinking.
0 - strongly disagree;
1 - strongly agree
Brien & Thombs, 1994
Preaction BSE Self-Efficacy Scale: I am able to perform breast self-examination regularly,

1) ...even if I will have to make a detailed plan describing how to remember about breast self-examination.

2) ...even if I will have to rethink my behaviors and opinions concerning breast self-examination.

3)...even if I will have to overcome my different habit of non-examination.

Imagining that you make an attempt to perform regular breast self-examination, do you think that you will procrastinate and reschedule it?
1 - definitely not
5 - exactly true
Luszczynska & Schwarzer, 2003
Maintenance BSE Self-Efficacy Scale I am able to perform BSE regularly, even if I need a long time to develop necessary routines.

I am able to perform it regularly, even if I have to try several times before it works.
1 - definitely not
5 - exactly true
Luszczynska & Schwarzer, 2003
<< Previous
Next >>

Search | Help | Contact Us | Accessibility | Privacy Policy

DCCPSNational Cancer Institute Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health USA.gov

Health Behavior Constructs: Theory, Measurement, & Research  You can Quit smoking Now! smokefree.gov