National Cancer Institute   National Cancer Institute

Behavioral Research

Table of Contents
1 General Definition & Theoretical Background
2 Measuring Stage
3 Recommendations
4

References

5

Appendix A

6 Appendix B
7 Appendix C
8 Appendix D
9 Published Examples

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Other Constructs
 

Barriers

 

Dispositional Optimism

 

Environments

 

Illness Representations

  Implementation Intentions
  Intention, Expectation, and Willingness
  Normative Beliefs
  Optimistic Bias
  Perceived Benefits
  Perceived Control
  Perceived Severity
  Perceived Vulnerability
  Self-Efficacy
  Self-Reported Behavior
  Social Influence
  Social Support
  Stages
  Worry

Stages
Stephen Sutton

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4

References

Altman, D. (1991). Practical statistics for medical research. London: Chapman & Hall.

Andersen, B. L., Cacioppo, J. T., & Roberts, D. C. (1995). Delay in seeking a cancer diagnosis: Delay stages and psychophysiological comparison processes. British Journal of Social Psychology, 34, 33-52.

Aveyard, P., Lancashire, E., Almond, J., & Cheng, K. K. (2002). Can the stages of change for smoking acquisition be measured reliably in adolescents? Preventive Medicine, 35, 407-414.

Bandura, A. (1997). The anatomy of stages. American Journal of Health Promotion, 12, 8-10.

Belding, M. A., Iguchi, M. Y., & Lamb, R. J. (1996). Stages of change in methadone maintenance: Assessing the convergent validity of two measures. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 10, 157-166.

Biener, L., & Abrams, DB. (1991). The contemplation ladder: Validation of a measure of readiness to consider smoking cessation. Health Psychology, 10, 360-365.

Borland, R., Balmford, J., & Hunt, D. (2004). The effectiveness of personally tailored computer-generated advice letters for smoking cessation. Addiction, 99, 369-377.

Borland, R., Balmford, J., Segan, C., Livingston, P., & Owen, N. (2003). The effectiveness of personalized smoking cessation strategies for callers to a Quitline service. Addiction, 98, 837-846.

Carey, K. B., Purnine, D. M., Maisto, S. A., & Carey, M. P. (2002). Correlates of stages of change for substance abuse among psychiatric outpatients. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 16, 283-289.

Catania, J. A., Kegeles, S. M., & Coates, T. J. (1990). Towards an understanding of risk behavior: An AIDS risk reduction model (ARRM). Health Education Quarterly, 17, 53-72.

DiClemente, C. C., Prochaska, J. O., Fairhurst, S. K., Velicer, W. F., Velasquez, M. M., & Rossi, J. S. (1991). The process of smoking cessation: An analysis of precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages of change. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 295-304.

Dijkstra, A., Bakker, M., & De Vries, H. (1997). Subtypes within a sample of precontemplating smokers: A preliminary extension of the stages of change. Addictive Behaviors, 22, 327-337.

Donovan, R. J., Jones, S., Holman, C. D. J., & Corti, B. (1998). Assessing the reliability of a stage of change scale. Health Education Research, 13, 285-291.

Etter, J-F., & Sutton, S. (2002). Assessing ‘stage of change’ in current and former smokers. Addiction, 97, 1171-1182.

Heckhausen, H. (1991). Motivation and action. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Herzog, T. A., Abrams, D. B., Emmons, K. M., & Linnan, L. (2000). Predicting increases in readiness to quit smoking: A prospective analysis using the contemplation ladder. Psychology and Health, 15, 369-381.

LaBrie, J. W., Quinlan, T., Schiffman, J. E., & Earleywine, M. E. (2005). Performance of alcohol and safer sex change rulers compared with readiness to change questionnaires. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 19, 112-115.

Maes, S., & Gebhardt, W. (2000). Self-regulation and health behavior: The health behavior goal model. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: Theory, research and applications (pp. 343-368). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Marcus, B. H., & Simkin, L. R. (1993). The stages of exercise behavior. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 33, 83-88.

McConnaughy, E. A., Prochaska, J. O., & Velicer, W. F. (1983). Stages of change in psychotherapy: Measurement and sample profiles. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 20, 368-375.

Miller, W. R., & Tonigan, J. S. (1996). Assessing drinkersí motivation for change: The Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES). Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 10, 81-89.

Petry, N. M. (2005). Stages of change in treatment-seeking pathological gamblers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 312-322.

Prochaska, J. O., & Velicer, W. F. (1997). The transtheoretical model of health behavior change. American Journal of Health Promotion, 12, 38-48.

Rakowski, W., Dube, C. E., Marcus, B. H., Prochaska, J. O., Velicer, W. F., & Abrams, D. B. (1992). Assessing elements of women’s decisions about mammography. Health Psychology, 11, 111-118.

Rollnick, S., Heather, N., Gold, R., & Hall, W. (1992). Development of a short "readiness to change" questionnaire for use in brief, opportunistic interventions among excessive drinkers. British Journal of Addiction, 87, 743-754.

Schwarzer, R. (2008). Modeling health behavior change: How to predict and modify the adoption and maintenance of health behaviors. Applied Psychology, 57, 1-29.

Slavet, J. D., Stein, L. A. R., Colby, S. M., Barnett, N. P., Monti, P. M., Golembeske Jr., C., & Lebeau-Craven, R. (2006). The Marijuana Ladder: Measuring motivation to change marijuana use in incarcerated adolescents. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 83, 42-48.

Sutton, S. (2000). A critical review of the transtheoretical model applied to smoking cessation. In P. Norman, C. Abraham & M. Conner (Eds.), Understanding and changing health behaviour: From health beliefs to self-regulation (pp. 207-225). Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers.

Sutton, S. (2001). Back to the drawing board? A review of applications of the transtheoretical model to substance use. Addiction, 96, 175-186.

Sutton, S. (2005). Stage theories of health behaviour. In M. Conner & P. Norman (Eds.), Predicting health behaviour: Research and practice with social cognition models (2nd ed., pp. 223-275). Maidenhead, England: Open University Press.

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Weinstein, N. D., Rothman, A. J., & Sutton, S. R. (1998). Stage theories of health behavior: Conceptual and methodological issues. Health Psychology, 17, 290-299.

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Weinstein, N. D., & Sandman, P. M. (2002). The precaution adoption process model. In K. Glanz, B. K. Rimer & F. M. Lewis (Eds.), Health behavior and health education: Theory, research, and practice (3rd ed., pp. 121-143). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

West, R. J. (2005). Time for a change: Putting the transtheoretical (stages of change) model to rest. Addiction, 100, 1036-1039.

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Health Behavior Constructs: Theory, Measurement, & Research