National Cancer Institute   National Cancer Institute

Behavioral Research

1 General Definition & Theoretical Background
2 Measuring Stage
3 Recommendations
4 References
5 Appendix A

Appendix B

7 Appendix C
8 Appendix D
9 Published Examples

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Other Constructs



Dispositional Optimism




Illness Representations

  Implementation Intentions
  Intention, Expectation, and Willingness
  Normative Beliefs
  Optimistic Bias
  Perceived Benefits
  Perceived Control
  Perceived Severity
  Perceived Vulnerability
  Self-Reported Behavior
  Social Influence
  Social Support

Stephen Sutton

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Appendix B. TTM Staging Algorithm for Adult Smoking, from University of Rhode Island Cancer Prevention Research Center (2008)

Are you currently a smoker?

  • Yes, I currently smoke
  • No, I quit within the last 6 months (ACTION STAGE)
  • No, I quit more than 6 months ago (MAINTENANCE STAGE)
  • No, I have never smoked (NONSMOKER)

(For smokers only) In the last year, how many times have you quit smoking for at least 24 hours?

(For smokers only) Are you seriously thinking of quitting smoking?

  • Yes, within the next 30 days (PREPARATION STAGE if they have one 24-hour quit attempt in the past year – refer to previous question… if no attempt then CONTEMPLATION STAGE)
  • Yes, within the next 6 months (CONTEMPLATION STAGE)
  • No, not thinking of quitting (PRECONTEMPLATION STAGE)
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Health Behavior Constructs: Theory, Measurement, & Research