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National Cancer Institute
Behavioral Research - Cancer Control and Population Sciences

Smoking and Tobacco Control Monographs

Monograph 13: Risks Associated with Smoking Cigarettes with Low Tar Machine-Measured Yields of Tar and Nicotine

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  1. Download the entire monograph (3,000 kb)
  2. Download only the chapters you are interested in (see below)

Table of Contents:

  • Chapter 1
    Public Health Implications of Changes in Cigarette Design and Marketing
    (204 kb)
    • How Did It Happen
    • Compensation
    • Elasticity of Demand in the Cigarette
    • Marketing of Low-Yield Cigarettes
    • Disease Risks

  • Chapter 2
    Cigarette Design
    (204 kb)
    • Cigarette-Yield Testing by Smoking Machine Using the FTC Protocol
    • Changes in FTC Machine-Smoked Yields Over Time
    • Design Changes That Reduce Standard Yields
    • Compensation and Cigarette Design: Difference in Yield with Different Smoking Patterns
    • More Evidence from Industry Documents Related to Compensation, Cigarette Design, and the FTC Testing Method

  • Chapter 3
    Compensatory Smoking of Low-Yield Cigarettes
    (223 kb)
    • Role of Nicotine in Maintaining Tobacco Addiction
    • Biomarkers of Tobacco Smoke Exposure
    • Nicotine Absorption from Cigarette Smoking
    • Estimating the Extent of Compensation
    • Studies of Smoking Cigarettes with Different Machine-Determined Yields: Methodological Considerations
    • Short-Term Experimental Switching Studies
    • Long-Term Experimental Switching Studies
    • Studies of Smokers Smoking Self-Selected Brands
    • Spontaneous Brand Switching

  • Chapter 4
    Smoking Lower Yield Cigarettes and Disease Risks
    (605 kb)
    • Historical Development of the Lower Yield Cigarette Issue
    • Limitations of Epidemiological Studies in Examining the Risks of Low-Yield Cigarette Use
    • Published Epidemiological Studies of Health Endpoints
    • Biologic Implications of Compensation for Changes in Cigarette Design
    • Correlation of Cigarette Brand Choice with Number of Cigarettes Smoked per Day and Duration of Smoking
    • Temporal Trends in Lung Cancer and Other Diseases in Major Cohort Studies
    • Temporal Trends in National Lung Cancer Death Rates and Smoking Behaviors

  • Chapter 5
    The Changing Cigarette: Chemical Studies and Bioassays
    (269 kb)
    • Identification of Carcinogens, Tumor Promoters, and Carcinogens in Tobacco Smoke
    • Smoking Conditions
    • Changes in Cigarette Smoke Composition with Various Design Changes
    • Observations on Cigarette Smokers

  • Chapter 6
    Public Understanding of Risk and Reasons for Smoking Low-Yield Products
    (81 kb)
    • Perceptions of Light Cigarettes
    • Reasons for Smoking or Switching to Light Cigarettes
    • The Relationship of Switching to Quitting

  • Chapter 7
    Marketing Cigarettes with Low Machine- Measured Yields
    (1,519 kb)
    • The 1950s
    • The 1960s
    • The 1970s
    • The 1980s

Last Updated: March 1, 2012

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