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National Cancer Institute

Monograph 9: Cigars: Health Effects and Trends

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  1. Download the entire monograph (2,800 KB)
  2. Download only the chapters you are interested in (see below)

Table of Contents:

  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments

  • Chapter 1
    Cigar Smoking: Overview and Current State of the Science
    (PDF, 585 KB)
    • Trends in Consumption
    • Disease Risks
    • Inhalation
    • Nicotine Addiction
    • Adult Use
    • Adolescent Use
    • Marketing
    • Environmental Tobacco Smoke
    • Regulation and Taxation

  • Chapter 2
    Trends in Cigar Consumption and Smoking
    (PDF, 715 KB)
    • Discussion
    • Monitoring Recommendations

  • Chapter 3
    Chemistry and Toxicology
    (455 KB)
    • Historical Notes
    • The Cigar
    • Chemistry of Cigar Tobacco
    • Chemistry and Analysis of Mainstream Cigar Smoke
    • Sidestream Smoke and Environmental Tobacco Smoke
    • Toxicity and Carcinogenicity of Cigar Smoke
    • Biomarkers for the Uptake of Tobacco Smoke
    • Summary and Research Needs

  • Chapter 4
    Disease Consequences of Cigar Smoking
    (PDF, 293 KB)
    • The CPS-I Study
    • All Cause Mortality
    • Cause Specific Mortality
    • Lung Cancer
    • Oral Cancer
    • Cancer of the Larynx
    • Cancer of the Esophagus
    • Bladder and Urinary System Cancers
    • Pancreatic Cancer
    • Coronary Heart Disease
    • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
    • Cerebro-Vascular Disease
    • Aortic Aneurysm

  • Chapter 5
    Indoor Air Pollution From Cigar Smoke
    (553 KB)
    • Mathematical Models for Cigar ETS Concentrations
    • Cigar Emissions: Machine Smoking
    • Cigar Emissions: Human Smoking
    • Measurements at Cigar Smoking Socials

  • Chapter 6
    Pharmacology and Abuse Potential of Cigars
    (PDF, 130 KB)
    • Early Observations of Addictive Effects
    • Nicotine Dosing Capability of Cigars
    • Inhalation of Cigar Smoke
    • Rate of Nicotine Absorption
    • Nicotine Dependence
    • Factors Influencing Nicotine Dependence

  • Chapter 7
    Marketing and Promotion of Cigars
    (PDF, 423 KB)
    • Sales Patterns
    • Advertising
    • Promotion
    • Availability

  • Chapter 8
    Policies Regulating Cigars
    (PDF, 98 KB)
    • Regulation of Cigar Products
    • Health Warnings
    • Disclosure of Cigar or Smoke Product Constituents
    • Advertising Restrictions
    • Regulation of Cigar Smoking in Public Places
    • Litigation
    • Restrictions on Youth Access to Cigars
    • Taxation