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National Cancer Institute
Behavioral Research - Cancer Control and Population Sciences

NCI Measures Guide for Youth Tobacco Research

Situational Temptations Inventory for Smoking Acquisition: Adolescent Form
Plummer et al., 2001

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Brief Description: The Temptations to Try Smoking instrument is used to assess the temptations to try smoking in several situations among non-smokers. The original version (Pallonen et al., 1998) of this instrument contained four primary-order factors (Negative Affect, Positive Social, Peer Situations, and Curiosity). The final version (Plummer et al., 2001) of this instrument contains a fifth primary-order factor (Weight control) and renamed the Peer Situations factor to Social pressure. This instrument has 10 items which are assessed on a five-point Likert scale (not at all tempted - extremely tempted).
Target Population: Adolescent never-smokers or experimental smokers (psychometric data based on high school students).
Administrative Issues: 10 items, self-administered paper and pencil measure.
Scoring Information: Calculate the total of the items for each scale and convert to T-scores. Mean and standard deviation from Table 2 of Plummer et. al. can be used for conversion:
Positive social situations: 1, 6
Negative affect situations:2, 7
Social Pressure 3, 8
Curiosity: 4, 9
Weight control: 5, 10
Psychometrics: Reliability:
Internal consistency estimates (Plummer et al., 2001)
Temptation total score: alpha = .90
Negative affect: alpha = .83
Positive social: alpha = .77
Social pressure: alpha = .78
Curiosity: alpha = .66
Weight control: alpha = .85

Pallonen et al., 1998: internal consistency estimates: alpha coefficients ranged from .64 to .92

Validity analyses indicated that scale scores increased with each successive stage of smoking acquisition.
Clinical Utility of Instrument: This brief instrument can be useful in prevention programs to identify adolescents who are at risk of smoking initiation, and to intervene in the areas that have been identified as high risk. The subscales may be most useful as a guide to an individualized intervention, while the total temptation score may best serve as an outcome measure.
Research Applicability: To provide further examination on temptation situations and smoking initiation among adolescents. To assess the efficacy of prevention programs in decreasing risk of smoking initiation and to assist with individual tailoring of prevention approaches.
Copyright, Cost, andSource Issues: No charge for use.
Source Reference: [original version] Pallonen, Prochaska, Velicer, Prokhorov, & Smith. (1998). Stages of acquisition and cessation for adolescent smoking: An empirical investigation. Addictive Behaviors, 23(3), 303-324.
Supporting References: [final version] Plummer, B.A., Velicer, W.F., Redding, C.A., Prochaska, J.O., Rossi, J.S., Pallonen, U.E., & Meier, K.S. (2001). Stage of change, decisional balance, and temptations for smoking. Measurement and validation in a large, school-based population of adolescents. Addictive Behaviors, 26, 551-571. This paper describes the addition of the Weight control factor.

Hudmon, K.S., Prokhorov, A.V., Koehly, L.M., DiClemente, C.C., & Gritz, E.R. (1997). Psychometric properties of the decisional balance scale and the temptations to try smoking inventory in adolescents. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse, 6(3), 1-18. This paper uses the original measure developed by Pallonen, et al. (1998) and includes five items not retained by Pallonen et al. In addition, the response options (really don't want to - really want to) differ from the original instrument.

Velicer, W.F., DiClemente, C., Rossi, J.S., & Prochaska, J.O. (1990). Relapse situations and self efficacy: An integrative model. Addictive Behaviors, 15, 271-283. Original source paper relates measure to Bandura's Social Learning Theory and relapse prevention literature.
Author: Wayne F. Velicer, Ph.D.
Contact Information: Cancer Prevention Research Center
University of Rhode Island
2 Chafee Road
Kingston, RI 02881
Phone: (401) 874-4254
Fax: (401) 874-5562
Email: velicer@uri.edu
Website: www.uri.edu/research/cprc
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Last Updated: May 1, 2012

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