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National Cancer Institute
Behavioral Research - Cancer Control and Population Sciences

NCI Measures Guide for Youth Tobacco Research

Situational Temptations Inventory for Smoking: Adolescent Form
Plummer et al., 2001

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Brief Description: The Temptations to Smoke measure is used to assess the temptation to smoke in different situations. This instrument is comprised of four primary factors (Social Influence, Negative Affect, Habit Strength, Weight Control) and a second-order factor, General Temptation. There is a total of eight items that are assessed on a five-point Likert scale (not at all tempted - extremely tempted).
Target Population: Adolescent smokers (psychometric data based on 9th grade students, average age 15)
Administrative Issues: 8-items
Self-administered paper and pencil measure
Scoring Information: Calculate the total of the items for each scale and convert to T-scores. Mean and standard deviation from Table 2 of Plummer et. al. can be used for conversion:
Positive social situations: 1, 5
Negative affect situations: 2, 6
Habit strength: 3, 7
Weight control: 4, 8
Psychometrics: Reliability:
Internal consistency estimates
Temptation: alpha = .89
Negative affect: alpha = .91
Positive social: alpha = .81
Habit strength: alpha = .72
Weight control: alpha = .88

Validity analyses indicated that scores on the each scale decreased with each successive stage of smoking cessation.
Clinical Utility of Instrument: This brief instrument can be useful in smoking cessation programs to identify and intervene in the specific areas where adolescents are at highest risk of smoking relapse. The subscales may be most useful as a guide to an individualized intervention, while the total temptation score may best serve as an outcome measure.
Research Applicability: To provide further examination on temptation situations, smoking cessation, and relapse among adolescent smokers. To assess the efficacy of cessation programs and to assist in individual tailoring of treatment approaches.
Copyright, Cost, andSource Issues: No charge for use.
Source Reference: Plummer, B.A., Velicer, W.F., Redding, C.A., Prochaska, J.O., Rossi, J.S., Pallonen, U.E., & Meier, K.S. (2001). Stage of change, decisional balance, and temptations for smoking. Measurement and validation in a large, school-based population of adolescents. Addictive Behaviors, 26, 551-571.
Supporting References: Velicer, W.F., DiClemente, C., Rossi, J.S., && Prochaska, J.O. (1990). Relapse situations and self efficacy: An integrative model. Addictive Behaviors, 15, 271-283. Original source paper relates measure to Bandura's Social Learning Theory and relapse prevention literature.
Author: Wayne F. Velicer, Ph.D.
Contact Information: Cancer Prevention Research Center
University of Rhode Island
2 Chafee Road
Kingston, RI 02881
Phone: (401) 874-4254
Fax: (401) 874-5562
Email: velicer@uri.edu
Website: www.uri.edu/research/cprc
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Last Updated: May 1, 2012

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