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Cancer Control Research

Johnson, C. A.


DESCRIPTION: (Applicant's Description) Four research projects are proposed, each to span the initial five years of center funding: The Preventing Tobacco Use Across Cultures, Project 1, will assess culturally-tuned approaches to tobacco smoking and ETS exposure prevention among the youth of different cultures in both pluralistic and monolithic cultural settings. The first trial, carried out in California and Hawaiian middle and high schools compares a social influences approach to prevention modified for five specific API and HL cultures (Chinese, Filipino, Hawaiian, Mexican, and Central American). The second tests the effectiveness of a modified Western prevention model for prevention of smoking and ETS exposure in a mono-cultural Chinese setting, that of Wuhan, China. Two large trials are made feasible by substantial cost- sharing from other sources. The transdisciplinary team consists of psychologists, an anthropologist, epidemiologists, biostatisticians, an educator, a demographer, a geographer, environmental and respiratory scientists, and public health researchers who collaborate in identifying populations, designing measures and intervention programs, and analyzing data. This project provides data for and interacts highly with Projects 2 and 3. Role of cultural values in adolescent smoking, Project 2, examines the role of culture, acculturation, and media in the six cultures studied in the TUPACT project. Building on the measures for the trials, Project 2 assesses specific features of culture and their variation both within and across cultures as they relate directly and interactively with smoking and ETS exposure. The transdisciplinary team consists of psychologists, anthropologists, epidemiologists, biostatisticians, and a geographer. Smoking progression among culturally diverse youth, Project 3, uses data from the longitudinal trials in Project 1 to assess features of pluralistic and monolithic cultures that influence progression to regular and addictive levels of smoking. Like Projects 1 and 2, the aims of this project require the collaboration of social scientists from several disciplines, environmental scientists, and geneticists. Projects 1, 2, and 3 are highly interactive in developing conceptual models for development and designing measures to test those models. And Project 1 and Project 2 inform later stages of interventions in Project 1. Countering Tobacco Advertising in Diverse Populations, Project 4, examines the separate and interactive effects of exposure to media advertising and counter-advertising on smoking and ETS exposure. This study uses our sequential statewide surveys of youth and adults to assess outcomes related to exposure to state and local tobacco control programs funded under California legislation, as well as exposure to tobacco marketing. Results from these surveys are used to develop interventions for specific ethnic groups, then test them in a longitudinal study. Gene environment interaction and childhood respiratory health, a related project funded entirely by the Division of Intramural Research at NIEHS, will be a part of this center as allowed in the program announcement. This project interacts with Project 1 in the collection of buccal cell samples for genetic determinations and air exposures for Wuhan youth, and provides measures for respiratory and other health outcomes for Project 1. In the future this project will interact with Project 3, Pilot Project 2, and the gene-environment team to assess relationships among genetic, personality, and tobacco use variables in the Wuhan cohort. Two pilot studies are proposed. One explores the availability and use of social resources (social networks, social support systems, etc.) by Hispanic/Latino youth as they relate to tobacco use uptake and progression. The other hypothesizes that emotion and drive will affect smoking differently in very different cultures, that culture (Chinese and Persian) moderates the relationship between depression, anxiety and novelty seeking on the one hand and cigarette smoking on the other.

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