Published Examples


Champion, V. L. & Skinner, C. S. (2003). Differences in perceptions of risk, benefits, and barriers by stage of mammography adoption. Journal of Women’s Health, 12, 277-286.

Eiser, J. R. & Cole, N. (2002). Participation in cervical screening as a function of perceived risk, barriers, and need for cognitive closure. Journal of Health Psychology, 7, 99-105.

Finney Rutten, L. J., Nelson, D. E. & Meissner, H. I. (2004). Examination of population-wide trends in barriers to cancer screening from a diffusion of innovation perspective (1987-2000). Preventive Medicine, 38, 258-268.

Glasgow, R.E., Whitlock, E.P., Valanis, B.G., & Vogy, T.M. (2000). Barriers to mammography and pap smear screening among women who recently had neither, one or both types of screening. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 22, 223-228.

Glasgow, R. E., Toobert, D. J. & Gillette, C. D. (2001). Psychosocial barriers to diabetes self-management and quality of life Exit Disclaimer. Diabetes Spectrum, 14, 33-41.

Menon, U., Champion, V., Monahan, P. O., Daggy, J., Hui, S. & Skinner, C. S. (2007). Health belief model variables as predictors of progression in stage of mammography adoption. American Journal of Health Promotion, 21, 255-61.

Nash, D., Chan, C., Horowitz, D. & Vlahov, D. (2007). Barriers and missed opportunities in breast and cervical cancer screening among women aged 50 and over, New York City, 2002. Journal of Women’s Health, 16, 46-56.

Dispositional Optimism

Carver, C. S., Pozo, C., Harris, S. D., Noriega, V., Scheier, M. F., Robinson, D. S., Ketcham, A. S., Moffat, F. L., Jr., & Clark, K. C. (1993). How coping mediates the effect of optimism on distress: A study of women with early stage breast cancer. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 375-390.

David, D., Montgomery, G. H., & Bovbjerg, D. H. (2006). Relations between coping responses and optimism-pessimism in predicting anticipatory psychological distress in surgical breast cancer patients. Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 203-213.

Kubzansky, L. D., Sparrow, D., Vokonas, P. Kawachi, I. (2001). Is the glass half empty or half full? A prospective study of optimism and coronary heart disease in the normative aging study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 63, 910-916.

Scheier, M.F., Matthews, K.A., Owens, J.F., Magovern, G.J., Lefebvre, R.C., Abbott, R.A., & Carver, C.S. (1989). Dispositional optimism and recovery from coronary artery bypass surgery: The beneficial effects on physical and psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 1024-1040.

Stanton, A. L., Danoff-Burg, S., & Huggins, M. E., (2002). The first year after breast cancer diagnosis: Hope and coping strategies as predictors of adjustment. Psycho-Oncology, 11, 93-102.


Berke, E. M., Koepsell, T. D., Moudon, A. V., Hoskins, R. E. & Larson, E. B. (2007). Association of the built environment with physical activity and obesity in older persons. American Journal of Public Health, 97, 486-492.

Humpel, N., Owen, N. & Leslie, E. (2002). Environmental factors associated with adults’ participation in physical activity: A review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 22, 188-199.

Powell, L. M., Slater, S., Mirtcheva, D., Bao, Y. & Chaloupka, F. J. (2007). Food store availability and neighborhood characteristics in the United States. Preventive Medicine, 44, 189-195.

Sallis, J. F., King, A. C., Sirard, J. R. & Albright, C. L. (2007). Perceived environmental predictors of physical activity over 6 months in adults: Activity Counseling Trial. Health Psychology, 26, 701-709.

Scott, M. (2005). A powerful theory and a paradox: Ecological psychologists after Barker Exit Disclaimer. Environment and Behavior, 37, 209-217.

Srinivasan, S., O’Fallon, L. R. & Dearry, A. (2003). Creating healthy communities, healthy homes, healthy people: Initiating a research agenda on the built environment and public health. American Journal of Public Health, 93, 1446-1450.

Illness Representations

Cooper, A., Lloyd, G., Weinman, J. and Jackson, G. (1999). Why patients do not attend cardiac rehabilitation: role of intentions and illness beliefs. Heart, 82 234-236.

Grunfeld, E. A., Hunter, M. S., Ramirez, A. J. & Richards, M. A. (2003). Perceptions of breast cancer across the lifespan. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 54, 141-146.

Lau, R.R., & Hartman, K.A. (1983). Common sense representations of common illnesses. Health Psychology, 2, 167-185.

Petrie, K. J., Cameron, L. D., Ellis, C. J., Buick, D. & Weinman, J. (2002). Changing illness perceptions after myocardial infarction: An early intervention randomized controlled trial. Psychosomatic Medicine 64, 580-586.

Petrie, K. J., Weinman, J., Sharpe, N., & Buckley, J. (1996). Role of patients’ view of their illness in predicting return to work and functioning after myocardial infarction: longitudinal study. British Medical Journal, 312, 1191-1194.

Rees, G., Fry A., Cull A, & Sutton, S. (2004). Illness perceptions and distress in women at increased risk of breast cancer Exit Disclaimer. Psychology and Health, 19, 749-765.

Meyer, D., Leventhal, H., & Guttman, M. (1985). Common-sense models of illness: The example of hypertension. Health Psychology, 4, 115-135.

Leventhal, H., Diefenbach, M., & Leventhal, E.A. (1992). Illness cognition: Using common sense to understand treatment adherence and affect cognition interactions Exit Disclaimer. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 6, 143-163.

Implementation Intentions

Armitage, C. J. (2007). Efficacy of a brief worksite intervention to reduce smoking: The roles of behavioral and implementation intentions. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 12, 376-390.

Gollwitzer, P. M. (1996). The volitional benefits of planning Exit Disclaimer. In P. M. Gollwitzer & J. A. Bargh (Eds.). The psychology of action: Linking cognition and motivation to behavior (pp. 287-312). New York: Guilford.

Gollwitzer, P. M. (1999). Implementation intentions: Strong effects of simple plans Exit Disclaimer. American Psychologist, 54, 493-503.

Rutter, D. R., Steadman, L. & Quine, L. (2006). An implementation intentions intervention to increase uptake of mammography. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 32, 127-134.

Sheeran, P. & Orbell, S. (2000). Using implementation intentions to increase attendance for cervical cancer screening. Health Psychology, 19, 283-289.

Steadman, L. & Quine, L. (2004). Encouraging young males to perform testicular self-examination: A simple, but effective, implementation intentions intervention. British Journal of Health Psychology, 9, 479-487.

Intention, Expectation, and Willingness

Gibbons, F.X., Gerrard, M., Blanton, H., & Russell, D.W. (1998). Reasoned action and social reaction: Willingness and intention as independent predictors of health risk. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1164-1181.

Gerrard, M., Gibbons, F.X., Stock, M.L., Vande Lune, L.S. & Cleveland, M.J., (2005). Images of smokers and willingness to smoke among African American pre-adolescents: An application of the prototype/willingness model of adolescent health risk behavior to smoking initiation. Pediatric Psychology, 30, 305-318.

Godin, G., Gagné, C., Maziade, J., Moreault, L., Beaulieu, D., & Morel, S. (2001). Breast cancer: The intention to have a mammography and a clinical breast exam - application of the theory of planned behavior Exit Disclaimer. Psychology and Health, 16, 423-441.

Hill, G. J., Shriver, B. J., & Arnett, D. B. (2006). Examining intentions to use CoQ10 amongst breast cancer patients. American Journal of Health Behavior, 30, 313-321.

Rah, J. H., Hasler, C. M., Painter, J. E., & Chapman-Novakofski, K. M. (2004). Applying the theory of planned behavior to women's behavioral attitudes on and consumption of soy products. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 36, 238-244.

Rivis, A., Sheeran, P., & Armitage, C.J. (2006). Augmenting the theory of planned behaviour with the prototype/willingness model: Predictive validity of actor versus abstainer prototypes for adolescents’ health-protective and health-risk intentions. British Journal of Health Psychology, 11, 483-500.

Steadman, L., & Rutter, D. R. (2004). Belief importance and the theory of planned behaviour: Comparing modal and ranked modal beliefs in predicting attendance at breast screening. British Journal of Health Psychology, 9, 447-463.

van Empelen, P., & Kok, G. (2006). Condom use in steady and casual sexual relationships: planning, preparation and willingness to take risks among adolescents. Psychology and Health, 21, 165-181.

Normative Beliefs

Finlay, K. A., Trafimow, D., & Moroi, E. (1999). The importance of subjective norms on intentions to perform health behaviors Exit Disclaimer. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 29, 2381-2393.

Olds, R. S., Thombs, D. L., & Tomasek, J. R. (2005). Relations between normative beliefs and initiation intentions toward cigarette, alcohol and marijuana. Journal of Adolescent Health, 37, 75.e7-75.e13.

Sayeed, S. Fishbein, M. Hornik, R. Cappella, J. & Ahern, R. K. (2005). Adolescent marijuana use intentions: Using theory to plan an intervention. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy, 12, 19-34.

Steadman, L. Rutter, D. R., & Field, S. (2002). Individually elicited versus modal normative beliefs in predicting attendance at breast screening: Examining the role of belief salience in the Theory of Planned Behaviour. British Journal of Health Psychology, 7, 317-330.

Trafimow, D. (1994). Predicting intentions to use a condom from perceptions of normative pressure and confidence in those perceptions Exit Disclaimer, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 24, 2151-2163.

Optimistic Bias

Clarke, V. A., Lovegrove, H., Williams, A., & Machperson, M. (2000). Unrealistic optimism and the Health Belief Model. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 23, 367-376.

McMath, B. F. & Prentice-Dunn, S. (2005). Protection motivation theory and skin cancer risk: The role of individual differences in responses to persuasive appeals Exit Disclaimer. (PDF) Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 35, 621-643.

Weinstein, N. D. (1980). Unrealistic optimism about future life events. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 806-820.

Weinstein, N. D., & Klein, W. M. (1995). Resistance of personal risk perceptions to debiasing interventions. Health Psychology, 14, 132-140.

Weinstein, N.D., & Lyon, J. E. (1999). Mindset, optimistic bias about personal risk and health-protective behaviour Exit Disclaimer. British Journal of Health Psychology, 4,289-300.

Weinstein, N. D., Marcus, S. E., & Moser, R. P. (2005). Smokers’ unrealistic optimism about their risk. Tobacco Control, 14, 55-59.

Perceived Benefits

Fang, C. Y., Miller, S. M., Malick, J., Babb, J., Engstrom, P. F., & Daly, M. B. (2003). Psychosocial correlates of intention to undergo prophylactic oophorectomy among women with a family history of ovarian cancer. Preventive Medicine, 37, 424-431.

Hay, J. L., Ford, J. S., Klein, D., Primavera, L. H., Buckley, T. R., Stein, T. R., Shike, M., & Ostroff, J. S. (2003). Adherence to colorectal cancer screening in mammography-adherent older women. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 26, 553-576.

Manne, S., Markowitz, A., Winawer, S. Guillem, J. Meropol, N. J., Haller, D., Jandorf, L., Rakowski, W., Babb, J., & Duncan, T. (2003). Understanding intention to undergo colonoscopy among intermediate-risk siblings of colorectal cancer patients: A test of a mediational model. Preventive Medicine, 36, 71-84.

Schnoll, R. A., Rothman, R. L., Newman, H., Lerman, C., Miller, S. M., Movsas, B., Sherman, E., Ridge, J. A., Unger, M., & Langer, C. (2004). Characteristics of cancer patients entering a smoking cessation program and correlates of quit motivation: Implications for the development of tobacco control programs for cancer patients. Psycho-Oncology, 13, 346-358.

Perceived Control

Andrykowski, M. A., Beacham, A. O., Schmidt, J. E., & Harper, F. W. K. (2006). Application of the theory of planned behavior to understand intentions to engage in physical and psychosocial health behaviors after cancer diagnosis. Psycho-Oncology, 15, 759-771.

Champion, V. L. (1999). Revised susceptibility, benefits, and barriers scale for mammography screening. Research in Nursing & Health, 22, 341-348.

Rakowski, W., Clark, M. A., Pearlman, D. N., Ehrich, B., Rimer, B. K., Goldstein, M. G., Dube, C.E., & Woolverton, H., 3rd. (1997). Integrating pros and cons for mammography and Pap testing: extending the construct of decisional balance to two behaviors. Preventative Medicine, 26, 664-673.

Rowe, J. L., Montgomery, G. H., Duberstein, P. R. & Bovbjerg, D. H. (2005). Health locus of control and perceived risk for breast cancer in healthy women. Behavioral Medicine, 31, 33-40.

Skinner, C. S., Champion, V. L., Gonin, R., & Hanna, M. (1997). Do perceived barriers and benefits vary by mammography stage? Exit Disclaimer Psychology, Health & Medicine, 2, 65-75.

Williams-Piehota, P., Schneider, T. R., Pizarro, J., Mowad, L. & Salovey, P. (2004). Matching health messages to health locus of control beliefs for promoting mammography utilization. Psychology and Health, 19, 407-423.

Perceived Severity

Decruyenaere, M., Evers-Kiebooms, G., Welkenhuysen, M., Denayer, L. & Claes, E. (2000). Cognitive representations of breast cancer, emotional distress and preventive health behavior: A theoretical perspective. Psycho-oncology, 9, 528-536.

Fishbein, M., Triandis, H. C., Kanfer, F. H., Becker, M., Middlestadt, S. E. & Eichler, A. (2001). Factors influencing behavior and behavior change Exit Disclaimer. In Handbook of Health Psychology, (ed. A Baum, T. A. Revenson and J. E. Singer), pp. 3-16. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers: Mahwah, NJ, US.

Janz, N. K. & Becker, M. H. (1984). The Health Belief Model: A decade later. Health Education Quarterly, 11, 1-47.

Rosenstock, I. M. (1974). Historical origins of the health belief model Exit Disclaimer. Health Education Monographs, 2, 1-8.

Weinstein, N. D. (2000). Perceived probability, perceived severity, and health-protective behavior. Health Psychology, 19, 65-74.

Perceived Vulnerability

Azzarello, L. M., Dessureault, S., & Jacobsen, P. B. (2006). Sun-protective behavior among individuals with a family history of melanoma. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, 15, 142-145.

Gerrard, M., Gibbons F.X., & Bushman, B.J. (1996). The relation between perceived vulnerability to HIV and precautionary sexual behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 119, 390-409.

Halpern-Felsher, B. L., Biehl, M., Kropp, R. Y., Rubinstein, M. L. (2004). Perceived risks and benefits of smoking: Differences among adolescents with different smoking experiences and intentions. Preventive Medicine, 39, 559-567.

Harris, P. R., & Napper, L. (2005). Self-affirmation and the biased processing of threatening health-risk information. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 1250-1263.

Kreuter, M.W. & Strecher, V.J. (1995). Changing inaccurate perceptions of health risk: Results from a randomized Trial. Health Psychology, 14, 56-63.

Weinstein, N.D. (1984). Why it won't happen to me: Perceptions of risk factors and susceptibility. Health Psychology, 19, 431-457.


Champion, V., Skinner, C. S., & Menon, U. (2005). Development of a self-efficacy scale for mammography. Research in Nursing & Health, 28, 329-336.

Dijkstra, A., & de Vries, H. (2000). Self-efficacy expectations with regard to different tasks in smoking cessation Exit Disclaimer. Psychology & Health, 15, 501-511.

Dzewaltowski, D. A., Noble, J. M., & Shaw, J. M. (1990). Physical activity participation: Social cognitive theory versus the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior Exit Disclaimer. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 12, 388-405.

Luszczynska, A. (2004). Change in breast self-examination behavior: Effects of intervention on enhancing self-efficacy. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 11, 95-103.:

Luszczynska, A., & Schwarzer, R. (2003). Planning and self-efficacy in the adoption and maintenance of breast self-examination: A longitudinal study on self-regulatory cognitions Exit Disclaimer. Psychology & Health, 18, 93-108.

Schwarzer, R., Boehmer, S., Luszczynska, A. Mohamed, N., & Knoll, N. (2005). Dispositional self-efficacy as a personal resource factor in coping after surgery. Personality and Individual Differences, 39, 807-818.

Self-Reported Behavior

Curran, S. L., Beacham, A. O. & Andrykowski, M. A. (2004). Ecological momentary assessment of fatigue following breast cancer treatment. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 27, 425-444.

Friedman, W. J. (1993). Memory for time of past events Exit Disclaimer. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 44-66.

Hall, H. I., Van Den Eeden, S. K., Tolsma, D. D., Rardin, K., Thompson, T., Sinclair, A. H., et al. (2004). Testing for prostate and colorectal cancer: Comparison of self-report and medical record audit. Preventive Medicine, 39, 27-35.

Newell, S. A., Girgis, A., Sanson-Fisher, R. W. & Savolainen, N. J. (1999). The accuracy of self-reported health behaviors and risk factors relating to cancer and cardiovascular disease in the general population: A critical review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 17, 211-229.

Smyth, J. M. & Stone, A. A. (2003). Ecological Momentary Assessment research in behavioral medicine Exit Disclaimer. Journal of Happiness Studies, 4, 35-52.

Stone, A. A. & Shiffman, S. S. (1994). Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) in behavioral medicine. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 16, 199-202.

Social Influence

Evans, N., Farkas, A., Gilpin, E., Berry, C., & Pierce, J. P. (1995). Influence of tobacco marketing and exposure to smokers on adolescent susceptibility to smoking. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 87, 1538-1545.

Gibbons, F. X., Gerrard, M., Vande Lune, L. S., Wills, T. A., Brody, G., & Conger, R. D. (2004). Context and cognitions: Environmental risk, social influence, and adolescent substance use. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 1048-1061.

Jaccard, J., Blanton, H., & Dodge, T. (2005). Peer influences on risk behavior: An analysis of the effects of a close friend. Developmental Psychology, 41, 135-147.

Mosbach, P., & Leventhal, H. (1988). Peer group identification and smoking: Implications for intervention. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 97, 238-245.

Simons-Morton, B., Chen, R., Abroms, L., & Haynie, D. L. (2004). Latent growth curve analyses of peer and parent influences on smoking progression among early adolescents. Health Psychology, 23, 612-621.

Social Support

Cohen, S., Doyle, W. J., Skoner, D. P., Rabin, B. S., & Gwaltnery, J. M. Jr. (1997). Social ties and susceptibility to the common cold. Journal of the American Medical Association, 277, 1940-1944.

Cohen, S. (1988). Psychosocial models of the role of social support in the etiology of physical disease. Health Psychology, 7, 269-297.

Devine, D., Parker, P. A., Fouladi, R. T., & Cohen, L. (2003). The association between social support, intrusive thoughts, avoidance, and adjustment following an experimental cancer treatment. Psycho-Oncology, 12, 453-462.

House, J.S., Landis, K.R., & Umberson, D. (1988). Social relationships and health. Science, 241, 540-545.

Reynolds, J. S., & Perrin, N. A. (2004). Mismatches in social support and psychosocial adjustment to breast cancer. Health Psychology, 23, 425-430.

Sapp, A. L., Trentham-Dietz, A., Newcomb, P. A., Hampton, J. M., Moinpour, C. M., & Remington, P. L. (2003). Social networks and quality of life among female long-term colorectal cancer survivors. Cancer, 98, 1749-1758.

Wagner, C. D., Bigatti, S. M., & Storniolo, A. M. (2006). Quality of life of husbands of women with breast cancer. Psycho-Oncology, 15, 109-120.

Wills, T. A., & Filer, M. (2000). Social networks and social support. In A. Baum & T. Revenson (Eds.), Handbook of Health Psychology (pp. 209 234). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.


Bandura, A. (1997). The anatomy of stages. American Journal of Health Promotion, 12, 8-10.

Costanza, M. E., Luckmann, R., Stoddard, A. M., Avrunin, J. S., White, M. J., Stark, J. R., et al. (2005). Applying a stage model of behavior change to colon cancer screening. Preventive Medicine, 41, 707-719.

DiClemente, C. C., Prochaska, J. O., Fairhurst, S. K., Velicer, W. F., Velasquez, M. M. & Rossi, J. S. (1991). The process of smoking cessation: An analysis of precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages of change. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 295-304.

Herzog, T. A. & Blagg, C. O. (2007). Are most precontemplators contemplating smoking cessation? Assessing the validity of the stages of change. Health Psychology, 26, 222-231.

Maxwell, C. J., Onysko, J., Bancej, C. M., Nichol, M. & Rakowski, W. (2006). The distribution and predictive validity of the stages of change for mammography adoption among Canadian women. Preventive Medicine, 43, 171-177.

Prochaska, J. O., Velicer, W. F., Redding, C., Rossi, J. S., Goldstein, M., DePue, J., et al. (2005). Stage-based expert systems to guide a population of primary care patients to quit smoking, eat healthier, prevent skin cancer, and receive regular mammograms. Preventive Medicine, 41, 406-416.

Weinstein, N. D., Rothman, A. J., & Sutton, S. R. (1998). Stage theories of health behavior: Conceptual and methodological issues. Health Psychology, 17, 290-299.


Bowen, D. J., Helmes, A., Powers, D., Andersen, M. R., Burke, W., McTiernan, A., & Durfy, S. (2003). Predicting breast cancer screening intentions and behavior with emotion and cognition Exit Disclaimer. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 22, 213-232.

Dijkstra, A., & Brosschot, J. (2003) Worry about health in smoking behaviour change. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41, 1081-1092.

Kubzansky, L.D., Kawachi, I., Spiro, III, A., Weiss, S.T., Vokonas, P.S., & Sparrow, D. (1997). Is worrying bad for your heart? A prospective study of worry and coronary heart disease in the Normative Aging Study. Circulation, 95, 818-824.

Lerman, C., Schwartz, M.D., Lin, T.H., Hughes, C., Narod, S., & Lynch, H.T. (1997). The influence of psychological distress on use of genetic testing for cancer risk. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 414-420.

Mullens, A. B., McCaul, K. D., Erickson, S. C., & Sandgren, A. K. (2004). Coping after cancer: Risk perceptions, worry, and health behaviors among colorectal cancer survivors. Psycho-Oncology, 13, 367-376.

Schwartz, M., Lerman, C., Daly, M., Audrain, J., Masny, A., & Griffith, K. (1995). Utilization of ovarian cancer screening by women at increased risk. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, 4, 269-273.

Last Updated
September 24, 2020