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Monograph 21: The Economics of Tobacco and Tobacco Control

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Monograph 21 cover

Table of Contents:

    • Table of Contents
    • Figures and Tables
    • Prefaces
    • Acknowledgements
    • Abbreviations
    • Glossary

Section 1—Introduction

  • Chapter 1. Overview and Conclusions (PDF 528 KB)
    • Introduction      
    • WHO FCTC: A Framework for Action    
    • Preparation of This Monograph   
    • Major Accomplishments 
    • Major Conclusions         
    • Chapter Summaries and Conclusions       
    • References        
    • Appendix 1A. Country Groupings           

Section 2—Situation Analysis/Mapping

  • Chapter 2. Patterns of Tobacco Use, Exposure, and Health Consequences (PDF 1.5 MB)        
    • Introduction      
    • Diversity of Tobacco Products Worldwide           
    • Smoked Tobacco Products          
    • Smokeless Tobacco Products      
    • Other Tobacco Products 
    • Exposure to Secondhand Smoke 
    • Tobacco-Related Health Disparities         
    • Health Consequences of Tobacco Use      
    • Summary         
    • Research Needs 
    • Conclusions      
    • References        
  • Chapter 3. The Economic Costs of Tobacco Use, With a Focus on Low- and Middle Income Countries (PDF 815 KB)      
    • Introduction      
    • Framework for Estimating the Costs of Tobacco Use         
    • Estimates for Individual Countries          
    • Global Estimates           
    • Summary         
    • Research Needs 
    • Conclusions      
    • References        

Section 3—Price Determinants of Demand

  • Chapter 4. The Impact of Tax and Price on the Demand for Tobacco Products (PDF 1.2 MB)
    • Introduction      
    • Rationale for Levying Excise Taxes on Tobacco Products  
    • Modeling the Demand for Cigarettes       
    • Empirical Data on Cigarette Price, Affordability, and Taxes          
    • Methods of Assessing the Impact of Tax and Price on Use of Tobacco Products       
    • Evidence on the Impact of Tax and Price on Tobacco Use  
    • Tax, Price, and Tobacco Use: Other Key Findings 
    • Summary         
    • Research Needs 
    • Conclusions      
    • References        
  • Chapter 5. Design and Administration of Taxes on Tobacco Products (PDF 1.2 MB)
    • Introduction      
    • An Overview of Taxes on Tobacco Products         
    • Tobacco Product Tax Administration       
    • Summary         
    • Research Needs 
    • Conclusions      
    • References        
    • Appendix 5A. Recommendations From Guidelines for the Implementation of Article 6 of the WHO FCTC    

Section 4—Non-Price Determinants of Demand

  • Chapter 6. The Impact of Smoke-Free Policies (PDF 887 KB)
    • Introduction      
    • Economic Rationale for Comprehensive Smoke-Free Policies        
    • Country Adoption of Comprehensive Smoke-Free Policies
    • Smoke-Free Policies: Enforcement, Compliance, and Public Support          
    • The Impact of Comprehensive Smoke-Free Policies          
    • Smoke-Free Policies: Implications for Businesses and Government, and Other Intangible Costs         
    • Smoke-Free Policies: Cost-Effectiveness  
    • Summary         
    • Research Needs 
    • Conclusions      
    • References        
  • Chapter 7. The Impact of Tobacco Industry Marketing Communications on Tobacco Use (PDF 696 KB)         
    • Introduction      
    • Global Implementation of Tobacco Marketing Restrictions 
    • Econometric Studies of the Impact of Tobacco Marketing  
    • Econometric Studies of Bans on Tobacco Advertising       
    • Population-Level Studies of Tobacco Advertising 
    • Studies of Indirect Tobacco Marketing     
    • Summary         
    • Research Needs 
    • Conclusions      
    • References        
  • Chapter 8. The Impact of Information on the Demand for Tobacco Products (PDF 1.7 MB)    
    • Introduction      
    • Tobacco Industry Efforts to Limit and Distort Public Knowledge   
    • Information Interventions to Reduce Demand for Tobacco 
    • Information Shocks       
    • Anti-Tobacco Mass Media Campaigns      
    • School-Based Tobacco Education Programs         
    • Health Warning Labels   
    • Tobacco Packaging: Banning Misleading Descriptors and Requiring Plain Packaging
    • Summary         
    • Research Needs 
    • Conclusions      
    • References        
  • Chapter 9. Smoking Cessation (PDF 833 KB)
    • Introduction      
    • Health Benefits of Smoking Cessation     
    • Economic Benefits of Smoking Cessation
    • Current Interventions and Programs for Smoking Cessation           
    • Studies Assessing the Utility of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems for Cessation
    • Demand-Side Factors Related to Smoking Cessation Treatment      
    • Supply-Side or Regulatory Factors          
    • Adoption and Implementation of Cessation Interventions: Challenges and Opportunities       
    • Summary         
    • Research Needs 
    • Conclusions      
    • References        

Section 5—Policy and Other Influences on the Supply of Tobacco Products

  • Chapter 10. Tobacco Growing and Tobacco Product Manufacturing (PDF 947 KB)     
    • Introduction      
    • The Global Context of Tobacco Growing 
    • Price Supports and Other Support/Subsidy Programs        
    • Crop Substitution and Diversification Programs    
    • The Evolving Tobacco Industry  
    • Tobacco Product Regulation       
    • Summary         
    • Research Needs 
    • Conclusions      
    • References        
  • Chapter 11. Policies Limiting Youth Access to Tobacco Products (PDF 567 KB)
    • Introduction      
    • Types of Youth Access Policies and Their Intended Impact
    • Economic Rationale for Youth Access Policies     
    • Sources of Tobacco Products for Youth   
    • Country Adoption of Youth Access Legal Measures          
    • The Impact of Youth Access Policies on Youth Smoking Behavior 
    • Costs of Youth Access Interventions        
    • Implementation, Enforcement, and Compliance With Youth Access Policies
    • Summary         
    • Research Needs 
    • Conclusions      
    • References        
  • Chapter 12. Tobacco Manufacturing Privatization and Foreign Direct Investment and Their Impact on Public Health (PDF 877 KB)
    • Introduction      
    • Foreign Direct Investment: An Overview 
    • Privatization of State-Owned Enterprises: An Overview    
    • Foreign Direct Investment and Privatization in the Tobacco Sector 
    • Evolution and Consolidation in the Tobacco Industry        
    • Privatization and Foreign Direct Investment From a Public Health Perspective        
    • China as a Market Leader           
    • Trends in International Investment Law   
    • Summary         
    • Research Needs 
    • Conclusions      
    • References        
  • Chapter 13. Licit Trade in Tobacco Products (PDF 1.3 MB)    
    • Introduction      
    • Overview of Tobacco Trade        
    • Trade Liberalization and Tobacco Consumption    
    • Trade Agreements and Tobacco Control   
    • Summary         
    • Research Needs 
    • Conclusions      
    • References        
  • Chapter 14. Tobacco Tax Avoidance and Tax Evasion (PDF 1.3 KB)   
    • Introduction      
    • Means of Circumventing Taxes   
    • Measurement of Tobacco Tax Avoidance and Evasion       
    • Determinants of Tax Avoidance and Evasion        
    • Measures to Tackle Illicit Activities: The Illicit Trade Protocol       
    • Illicit Trade in Other Tobacco Products    
    • Summary         
    • Research Needs 
    • Conclusions      
    • References        

Section 6—Economic and Other Implications of Tobacco Control

  • Chapter 15. Employment Impact of Tobacco Control (PDF 572 KB)
    • Introduction      
    • Current Status of Tobacco Employment   
    • Trends and Regional Shifts in Tobacco-Related Employment         
    • Measuring the Impact of Tobacco Control Policies on Employment
    • Evidence on the Effects of Tobacco Control Policies on Employment         
    • Summary         
    • Research Needs 
    • Conclusions      
    • References        
  • Chapter 16. The Impact of Tobacco Use and Tobacco Control Measures on Poverty and Development (PDF 577 KB)      
    • Introduction      
    • Patterns of Tobacco Use, by Poverty and Country Income Group   
    • Impact of Tobacco Use on Poverty          
    • Impact of Tobacco Use on Economic Development           
    • Summary         
    • Research Needs 
    • Conclusions      
    • References        

Section 7—Global Implications of Tobacco Control

  • Chapter 17. Ending the Epidemic (PDF 620 KB)        
    • Milestones in Tobacco Control Economics           
    • What We Have Learned—Major Conclusions       
    • What We Need To Know—Research Priorities     
    • Ending the Epidemic     
    • References        

Statistical Annex (PDF 827 KB)