Cigarette Dependence Scale (CDS-12, twelve items)

Etter et al.

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Brief Description: The CDS-12 scale is a 12-item scale that assesses some components of formal diagnostic systems’ (e.g., DSM-IV and ICD-10) definitions of dependence with an emphasis on compulsion to smoke, withdrawal, loss of control, time allocation, neglect of other activities, and persistence despite harm. This instrument does not measure tolerance. Items on self-perception of addiction and smoking rate are also included. Response choices are on a five-point Likert scale.
Target Population: Adolescents and adults, ages 12-74.
Administrative Issues: Self-administered, pencil and paper, computer and internet based.
Minimal administration time required
No training requiredA French-language version available
A 5 item version available
Scoring Information: Minimal time required
Scored by hand
Norms available on 3,009 international participants
Total score obtained by summing responses for all 12 items.
Psychometrics: Reliability studies, based on 298 teens, ages 12-19 years, completed
Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha > .84)
Test-retest (18 day interval, r > .77)
Evidence of content and construct validity provided
Scores achieved by adolescent respondents are 7.7 points lower than adult respondents
Clinical Utility of Instrument: The CDS-12 provides a continuous index of nicotine dependence (mixed with other smoking-relevant items), which can be useful in identifying eligible patients and in monitoring progress in cessation treatment.
Research Applicability: May be useful in identifying nicotine use/dependence severity in adolescents. Authors encourage direct comparison to other dependence measures in adolescence for further validation information.
Source Reference: Etter, J.F., LeHouezec, J., & Perneger, T.V. (in press). A self-administered questionnaire to measure addiction to cigarettes: The Cigarette Dependence Scale. Neuropsychopharmacology.
Additional Supporting References: None
Author: Jean-Francois Etter, Ph.D., M.P.H.
Contact Information: Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine
University of Geneva
CMU, Case Postale
Geneva 4, Switzerland
Phone: +41.22.379.59.19
Fax: +41.22.379.59.12
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Last Updated
September 24, 2020