Cigarette Dependence Scale, short version (CDS-5, Five Items)

Etter et al.

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Brief Description: The CDS-5 scale is a five item scale that measures cigarette dependence based on varied conceptualizations and definitions of dependence with the exception of tolerance. It is a short version of the CDS-12 scale with similar properties but its content is less comprehensive.
Target Population: Adolescents and adults, ages 12-74.
Administrative Issues:

Self-administered, pencil and paper, computer and internet based. Minimal administration time required
No training required
A French-language version available

Scoring Information:

Minimal time required
Scored by hand
Norms available on 3,009 international participants
Total score obtained by summing responses on all 5 items.


Reliability studies completed

  • Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha > .84)
    Test-retest (18-day interval, r > .77)

Evidence of content and construct validity provided
Scores achieved by adolescent respondents are 3.3 points lower than adult respondents

Clinical Utility of Instrument:

The CDS-5 is a quickly administered instrument that provides a brief continuous index nicotine-use/dependence. The items comprise a mix of self-perceived addiction, efficacy for quitting, smoking quantity, craving, and latency to smoking upon waking.

This instrument can be useful in identifying eligible patients and in monitoring progress in cessation treatment.

Research Applicability: Provides a useful brief index of nicotine use severity. Authors encourage direct comparison to other dependence measures in adolescence for further validation information.
Source Reference: Etter, J.F., LeHouezec, J., & Perneger, T.V. (in press). A self-administered questionnaire to measure addiction to cigarettes: The Cigarette Dependence Scale. Neuropsychopharmacology.
Additional Supporting References: None
Author: Jean-Francois Etter, Ph.D., M.P.H.
Contact Information: Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine
University of Geneva
CMU, Case Postale
Geneva 4, Switzerland
Phone: +41.22.379.59.19
Fax: +41.22.379.59.12
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Last Updated
September 24, 2020