Decisional Balance Inventory for Smoking: Adolescent Form

Plummer et. al, 2001

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Brief Description: This 12-item Decisional Balance Inventory was adapted from the Decisional Balance Inventory developed with adult smokers. Response choices are on a five-point Likert scale (strongly disagree - strongly agree). This instrument consists of three factors: cons of smoking (six items), social pros (three items), and coping pros (three items), which demonstrated good model fit for both smokers and non-smokers in structural equation modeling analyses.
Target Population: Adolescent smokers and non-smokers (psychometric data based on high school students).
Administrative Issues: 12-items
Self-administered paper and pencil measure.
Scoring Information: Calculate the total of the items for each scale and convert to T-scores. Mean and standard deviation from Table 1 of Plummer et. al. can be used for conversion:
Social Pros: 1, 4, 7
Coping Pros: 2, 5, 8
Cons Scale: 3, 6, 9, 10, 11, 12
Psychometrics: Reliability:
Internal consistency estimates

In Pallonen, Prochaska, et al. (1998):
  • Social pros: coefficient alpha = .68 (nonsmokers), .67 (smokers)
    Coping pros: coefficient alpha = .81 (nonsmokers), .75 (smokers)
    Cons of smoking: coefficient alpha = .85 (nonsmokers), .78 (smokers)
In Plummer et al. (2001):
  • Social pros: coefficient alpha = .68 (nonsmokers), .79 (smokers)
    Coping pros: coefficient alpha = .79 (nonsmokers), .87 (smokers)
    Cons of smoking: coefficient alpha = .86 (nonsmokers), .88 (smokers)
Validity analyses: Plummer et al. study demonstrated that scale scores were associated with stage of change, but the Pallonen et al (1998) study showed mixed findings.
Clinical Utility of Instrument: This brief instrument may be useful in smoking cessation and prevention programs to assess for risk of smoking initiation or relapse and to intervene in the specific areas where adolescents are at highest risk.
Research Applicability: To provide further examination on adolescent decisions regarding smoking.
Copyright, Cost, and Source Issues: No charge for use.
Source Reference: Pallonen, U.E., Prochaska, J.O., Velicer, W.F., Prokhorov, A.V., & Smith, N.F. (1998). Stages of acquisition and cessation for adolescent smoking: An empirical integration. Addictive Behaviors, 23(3), 303-324.
Supporting References: Plummer, B.A., Velicer, W.F., Redding, C.A., Prochaska, J.O., Rossi, J.S., Pallonen, U.E., & Meier, K.S. (2001). Stage of change, decisional balance, and temptations for smoking. Measurement and validation in a large, school-based population of adolescents. ZAddictive Behaviors, 26, 551-571. In this paper, response options (not important - extremely important) are not consistent with the original instrument.

Velicer, W.F., DiClemente, C.C., Prochaska, J.O., & Brandenberg, N. (1985). A decisional balance measure for assessing and predicting smoking status. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 1279 1289. Original source paper relates measure to Janis and Mann theory.
Author: Wayne F. Velicer
Contact Information: Cancer Prevention Research Center University of Rhode Island
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Kingston, RI 02881
Phone: (401) 874-4254
Fax: (401) 874-5562
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Last Updated
September 24, 2020