Depressive Symptoms

Choi, Patten, Gillin, Kaplan, & Pierce.

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Brief Description: This six-item self-report measure, adapted from Kandel and Davies (1982), assesses six depressive symptoms experienced during the past twelve months. This measure provides a brief index of depressive symptoms; it does not yield a diagnosis of depression.
Target Population: Adolescents, between ages 12-18 years.
Administrative Issues: This measure was administered over the phone to adolescents at their homes.
Scoring Information: Responses to items are summed to produce an overall depressive symptoms score that ranges from 6 to 24 points. These scores are increased by 10 to produce a new range of 16 to 34 points. Adolescents who achieve a score of 29 or greater are defined as having notable depressive symptoms. Using this cut-off score, 15 percent of the teens were identified as having notable depressive symptoms. This rate is consistent with the rate of depressive symptomatology obtained by Kandel and Davies (1982).
Psychometrics: Cronbach's alpha for the entire scale was 0.72.
Clinical Utility of Instrument: This index can helpful in tailoring smoking cessation treatment by identifying adolescents who have notable depressive symptoms.
Research Applicability: Given the co-occurrence of smoking and depressive symptoms, this brief measure of depressive symptoms may be useful in smoking research as a predictor of treatment response, or as a covariate in outcome analyses.
Copyright, Cost, and Source Issues: No charge for use.
Source Reference: Choi, W.S., Patten, C.A., Gillin, J.C., Kaplan, R.M., & Pierce, J.P. (1997). Cigarette smoking predicts development of depressive symptoms among U.S. adolescents. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 19, 42-50.
Supporting References: None
Contact Author: J. P. Pierce, Ph.D.
Contact Information: Cancer Prevention and Control Program
Cancer Center
Mail Code 0901
University of California, San Diego
La Jolla, CA 92093-0901
  Kandel, D.B. & Davies, M. (1982). Epidemiology of depressive mood in adolescents. Archives of General Psychiatry, 39, 1205-1212.
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Last Updated
September 24, 2020