Pierce, Choi, Gilpin, Farkas, & Berry (1998)

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Brief Description: This is a 5-item self-report instrument to identify level of receptivity to tobacco industry advertising and promotional activities. Items were developed using a communication persuasion framework (McGuire, 1985), and a hierarchy of effects framework (Wright, 1973). These frameworks note that exposure to a persuasive communication is not sufficient to impact behavior. Advertising and promotions work hard to ensure members of the target audience will pay attention to the message and like it. One of the strongest indications of adolescent liking an image is whether (s)he will wear it on clothing, etc.
Target Population: Adolescents, aged 12 to 17
Administrative Issues: This instrument can be administered over the phone.
Scoring Information: Receptivity levels:
High: Those who had or were willing to use a piece of clothing or another item marked with an image from tobacco industry advertising.
Moderate: Respondents who did not have and were not willing to use an item with an image on it, but who nominated a favorite cigarette advertisement.
Low: Respondents who did not have a favorite advertisement and who did not have and would not use an item, but did name a cigarette brand as most advertised.
Minimal: Those who did not nominate a cigarette brand as the most advertised brand or a favorite cigarette advertisement, and did not have a promotional item nor would be willing to use a promotional item.
Psychometrics: Based on a longitudinal study (N=1,752) with a 3-year follow-up assessment. Baseline receptivity was strongly related to progression to smoking. Each higher level on the receptivity index was associated with a greater degree of movement toward smoking at the 3-year follow-up point.
Clinical Utility of Instrument: To identify adolescents who may particularly benefit from a smoking prevention program based on their risk level for smoking initiation.
Research Applicability: These items provide a measure of the extent to which adolescents are receptive to tobacco industry promotions and advertisements. This may be used in studies of factors associated with tobacco message persuasion, and it can be used to identify individuals at relatively higher risk for smoking initiation for sampling purposes. Some items may be adapted for post-MSA use.
Copyright, Cost, and Source Issues: These items are freely available in the public domain.
Source Reference: Pierce JP, Choi WS, Gilpin EA, Farkas AJ, Berry CC. Tobacco industry promotion of cigarettes and adolescent smoking. Journal of the American Medical Association 1998;279:511-515.
Supporting References: Pierce JP, Distefan JM, Jackson C, White MM, Gilpin, EA. Does tobacco marketing undermine the influence of recommended parenting in discouraging adolescents from smoking? American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2002;23:73-81.

Gilpin EA, Pierce JP, Rosbrook B. Are adolescents receptive to current sales promotion practices of the tobacco industry? Preventive Medicine 1997;26:14-21.

Evans N, Farkas A, Gilpin E, Berry C, Pierce JP. The influence of tobacco marketing and exposure to smokers on adolescent susceptibility to smoking. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1995;87:1538-45.
Author: John P. Pierce, Ph.D.
Contact Information: Cancer Prevention and Control Program
Cancer Center
University of California, San Diego
La Jolla, CA 92093-0645
  McGuire, W.J. (1985). Attitudes and attitude change. In G. Lindzey & E. Anderson (Eds.), The Handbook of Social Psychology, II. Third Edition. New York, NY: Random House.
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Last Updated
September 24, 2020