Stanford Dependence Inventory (SDI)

Rojas, Killen, et al.

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Brief Description: The SDI is a 5-item modified version of the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire for use with adolescent smokers. The purpose of the original Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire (FTQ; Fagerstrom, 1978; Fagerstrom & Schneider, 1989) is to help researchers and clinicians to classify smokers according to their degree of nicotine dependence. Modifications include rescaling items to provide more response options and analyzing daily cigarette consumption separately.
Target Population: Adolescent smokers
Administrative Issues: This paper and pencil self-report instrument can be administered in a group setting (e.g. classroom).
Scoring Information: Possible scores for the SDI range from 5-25
Psychometrics: N=249 10th grade smokers who reported at least one quit attempt.
Test-retest reliability (7-day interval)
  • Entire scale: r = 0.68.
    Correlations for each of the items ranged from 0.71-0.90

Correlational coefficients with smoking related variables:

  • Withdrawal symptoms: 0.51
    Number of cigarettes in previous 30 days: 0.58
    Saliva cotinine: 0.31
Clinical Utility of Instrument: The SDI provides a continuous measure of nicotine dependence for an adolescent population. The SDI may be helpful in designing cessation programs targeted to nicotine dependent teens.
Research Applicability: The SDI is a brief self-report measure that can be used to measure nicotine dependence among teen smokers. The SDI yields a single continuous index of dependence. There are no cut-offs available to categorize different levels of dependence.
Copyright, Cost, and Source Issues: No charge for use.
Source Reference: Rojas, N.L., Killen, J.D., Haydel, F. K., & Robinson, T.N. (1998). Nicotine Dependence Among Adolescent Smokers. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 152, 151-156.
Additional Supporting References: None
Corresponding Author: Joel D. Killen, Ph.D.
Contact Information: Stanford University School of Medicine
1000 Welch Rd
Palo Alto, CA 94304.

* Fagerstrom, K.O. (1978). Measuring the degree of physical dependency to tobacco smoking with reference to individualization of treatment. Addictive Behaviors, 3, 235-241.

Fagerstrom, K.O. & Schneider, N. (1989). Measuring nicotine dependence: A review of the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire.

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Last Updated
September 24, 2020