Team science is a collaborative effort to address a scientific challenge that leverages the strengths and expertise of professionals, oftentimes trained in different fields. Although traditional single-investigator driven approaches are ideal for many scientific endeavors, coordinated teams of investigators with diverse skills and knowledge may be especially helpful for tackling complex scientific and societal problems.
The increasing emphasis over the past two decades on scientifically addressing multi-factorial problems, such as climate change, the rise of chronic disease, and the health impacts of social stratification, has contributed to a surge of interest and investment in team science. Increasingly, scientists across many disciplines and settings are engaging in team-based research initiatives. These include small and large teams, uni- and multi-disciplinary groups, and efforts that engage multiple stakeholders such as scientists, community members, and policymakers. Academic institutions, industry, national governments, and other funders are also investing in team science initiatives.
A growing trend within team science is cross-disciplinary science in which team members with training and expertise in different fields work together to combine or integrate their perspectives in a single research endeavor. Cross-disciplinary team science has been identified as a means to engage in expansive studies that address a broad array of complex and interacting variables. It is seen as a promising approach to accelerate scientific innovation and the translation of scientific findings into effective policies and practices.
The success of team science is influenced by a variety of contextual influences. These inter-related factors influence each stage of a scientific initiative, with implications for efficiency, productivity, and overall effectiveness. They include:
- Funding trends
- Institutional infrastructure and resources for communication and data sharing
- Organizational policies—such as promotion and tenure policies—that impact team-based endeavors
- Team processes, including the existence of agreements related to proprietary rights to data and discovery, as well as mechanisms for feedback and reflection
- Interpersonal dynamics among team members
- Team members' collaborative skills and experiences